Tag Archives: Prototype

3 AXIS CNC Prototype

Verify out these cnc metal prototype pictures:

3 AXIS CNC Prototype
cnc metal prototype
Image by TEDxPlainesWilhems
By University of Mauritius Engineering Students

The machine tool presented is a prototype with 3 axis Laptop Numerical Manage (CNC) to machine a portion drawn on a Laptop Aided Design computer software (CAD). A personal computer converts the design produced by CAD into coded alphanumeric information to handle the movement of the cutter in space along the X, Y and Z axes servomotors along each and every axis are then utilized to accurately position the cutter as the pc controls the cutting and shaping of the material. The applications for this type of system are many folds, ranging from metal components making to engraving on glass and wood.

TEDxPlainesWilhems 2016

(Post from rapid prototyping companies in china blog)

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Cool Metal Turning Prototype Makers pictures

Check out these metal turning prototype manufacturers images:

“Old Fashioned British Sweets From Your Childhood”
metal turning prototype manufacturers
Image by brizzle born and bred
1953: Sweet rationing ends in Britain

Children all over Britain have been emptying out their piggy-banks and heading straight for the nearest sweet-shop as the first unrationed sweets went on sale today. Toffee apples were the biggest sellers, with sticks of nougat and liquorice strips also disappearing fast.

One firm in Clapham Common gave 800 children 150lbs of lollipops during their midday break from school, and a London factory opened its doors to hand out free sweets to all comers.

Adults joined in the sugar frenzy, with men in the City queuing up in their lunch breaks to buy boiled sweets and to enjoy the luxury of being able to buy 2lb boxes of chocolates to take home for the weekend.

Do you remember your favourite childhood sweets and the excitement of going to the local sweet shop and choosing from the vast array of jars on the shelves full of colourful mouth watering temptations?

They were weighed by the quarter on a big old fashioned metal scale pan and packaged into small white paper bags.

For many of us, the Saturday ritual of sweets-buying has lingered into adulthood, and it is heartening to find so many places selling from jars. Indeed, the Bonds sweets factory in Carlisle – a major supplier – is planning to redesign its plastic jars to be squatter and wider than usual: an echo of the prewar shape. Multicoloured jars lined up on shelves are very alluring, for many of us a potent reminder of a time when the local sweet shop represented a kind of El Dorado.

If you thought it was just kids who ate sugar confectionery you’d be wide of the mark. Many of the lines might have been developed for children but prove a hit with adults, too. Even the tough guys (and gals) in the British armed forces love their sweets according to NAAFI figures, servicemen and women in Afghanistan last year munched their way through 923,583 bags of Haribo.

Here in the UK, sweetie buying habits change as we hopefully head towards warmer weather, with more people opting for fruity sweets rather than chocolate bars.

THE SWEETS GRAVEYARD

Spangles

Dimpled, square boiled sweets in fruit-flavoured and Old English varieties. Spangles was a brand of boiled sweets, manufactured by Mars Ltd in the United Kingdom from 1950 to the early eighties. They were bought in a paper tube with individual sweets cellophane wrapped. They were distinguished by their shape which was a rounded square with a circular depression on each face.

The regular Spangles tube (labelled simply "Spangles") contained a variety of translucent, fruit flavoured sweets: strawberry, blackcurrant, orange, pineapple, lemon and lime.

Originally the sweets were not individually wrapped, but later a waxed paper, and eventually a cellophane wrapper was used. The tube was a bright orange-red colour, bearing the word "Spangles" in a large letters. In the seventies a distinctive, seventies-style font was used.

Over the production period many different, single flavour varieties were introduced including Acid Drop, Barley Sugar, Blackcurrant, Liquorice, Peppermint, Spearmint and Tangerine.

The Old English Spangles tube contained traditional English flavours such as liquorice, mint humbugs, cough candy, butterscotch and pear drops. One of the flavours was an opaque mustard yellow colour, and one was striped.

The sweets’ individual wrappers were striped, distinguishing them from regular Spangles. The tube was black, white and purple, and designed for a more mature and specific clientele than the regular variety.

Spangles were discontinued in the early eighties, and briefly reintroduced in 1994, including in Woolworths outlets in the UK. There are many nostalgic references to them from children who grew up with them. Spangles are associated with the 1970s and they, like Space Hoppers or the Raleigh Chopper, have become shorthand for lazy nostalgia for the time, as in the phrase "Do you remember Spangles?"

Today the Tunes brand is the only remaining relation of the Spangles brand, sharing the shape and wrapping of the original product. In the UK, Tunes no longer have the Spangles style packaging, and they are now lozenge-shaped.

Cabana bar

Very sweet coconut-centred chocolate bar with cherry twist made by Cadbury’s.

Pineapple Mars

This early tropical-flavoured prototype was not a lasting success

Fry’s Five Centres

Follow-up to famous Fry’s Five Boys. Fry’s Cream is a chocolate bar made by Cadbury’s, and formerly by J. S. Fry & Sons. It consists of a fondant centre enrobed in dark chocolate and is available in a plain version, and also peppermint or orange fondant. Fry’s Chocolate Cream was one of the first chocolate bars ever produced, launched in 1866.

There are currently three variants of Fry’s Cream:

Fry’s Chocolate Cream
Fry’s Orange Cream
Fry’s Peppermint Cream

Over the years, other variants existed:

Fry’s Five Centre (orange, raspberry, lime, strawberry, and pineapple), produced from 1934 to 1992.

Fry’s Strawberry Cream
Fry’s Pineapple Cream

Cadbury’s also produced a solid milk chocolate bar called Five Boys using the Fry’s trademark in the 1960s. Cadbury’s produced milk and plain chocolate sandwich bars under the Fry’s branding also.

Fry’s chocolate bar was promoted by model George Lazenby, later James Bond actor, in 1962.

The Fry’s Chocolate bar was first produced in Union Street, Bristol, England in 1866, where the family name had been associated with chocolate making since circa 1759. In 1923 Fry’s (now Cadbury) chocolate Factory moved to Keynsham, England, but due to the imminent closure of the factory the production of the bar will move, possibly to Poland.

Banjo bar

Banjo is a chocolate bar once available in the UK. Introduced with a substantial television advertising campaign in 1976, Banjo was a twin bar (similar in shape and size to Twix) and based upon a wafer with a chopped peanut layer and the whole covered in milk chocolate. It was packaged in distinctive navy blue – with the brand name prominently displayed in yellow block text – and was one of the first British snack bars to have a heat-sealed wrapper closure instead of the reverse-side fold common to most domestically-produced chocolate bars at that time. It was available into the 1980s. There was a coconut version also available in a red wrapper with yellow text.

Aztec bars

So many sweet lovers would love to be able to enjoy Aztec bars again. Sadly it isn’t possible to buy Aztec bars at the moment. It was like a Mars Bar but not as sickly because it had nougat instead of toffee. It had a purple wrapper it was made by Cadbury’s.

Opal Fruits

Mars, the manufacturers, is bringing back the sweets for a limited period in conjunction with the supermarket chain ASDA.

The fruit chews that were "made to make you mouth water" were replaced by Starburst in 1998, the name under which they had been exported to the US in the seventies.

But the iconic British brand is being revived in celebration of the tenth anniversary of the change.

They will be available for an initial period of 12 weeks from May 10, exclusively in ASDA stores.

A spokesperson for ASDA said: "The demise of the Opal Fruit was mourned across the nation, and we’re really excited to be staging the exclusive comeback of this great British favourite."

Opal Fruits were initially introduced in Britain in the 1960s.

In 1998, the US brand Starburst was adopted in England in order to standardise the brand in the global marketplace.

Expectations are high that the move to bring back Opal Fruits will be popular with consumers.

As well as reverting to the original flavours of lemon, lime, orange and strawberry, the new Opal Fruits will be a strictly natural affair.

The limited edition will be produced using no artificial colouring or preservatives, a move that both ASDA and Mars hope will appeal to twenty-first century customers.

The return of Opal Fruits continues the recent trend of reviving classic brands.

Cadbury reintroduced the Wispa last year after an internet campaign which also involved protesters storming a stage at the Glastonbury festival.

Sherbert Fountain

Sherbet is sold in a plastic tube with twist-off lid, with a stick made from liquorice as a sherbet fountain. Many consumers regret the replacement of the former paper packaging, which allowed an extra dimension of enjoyment: the crushing of the caked lumps of sherbet as the paper cylinder was rolled between the hands. The top of the stick is supposed to be bitten off to form a straw and the sherbet sucked through it, where it fizzes and dissolves on the tongue, though many people prefer to either dip the liquorice in the sherbet and lick it off or to tip the sherbet into their mouths and eat the liquorice separately.

When paired with liquorice, sherbet is typically left unflavoured in a white form and with a higher reactive agent so that it causes a fizzy foam to develop in the mouth.

They are manufactured by Barratt, a subsidiary of Tangerine Confectionery.

Though some shops still sell the old-style only.

Sherbert Flying Saucers

These small pastel coloured rice paper sweets were shaped like a U.F.O. and contained delightfully fizzy sherbet.

Small dimpled discs made from edible coloured paper (rice paper), typically filled with white unflavoured sherbet (the same form as in Sherbet Fountains) These sweets had sherbert in the middle and a kind of melt-in-your-mouth outer shell.

Black Jacks Chews

Black Jack is a type of "aniseed flavour chew" according to its packaging. This means that it is a chewy (gelatin-based) confectionery. Black Jack is manufactured under the Barratt brand in Spain. Black Jack is very similar to Fruit Salad, which are also manufactured by Barratt.

Black Jacks are one of the most well-known classic British sweets. They`re aniseed-flavoured, chewy and black with a unique taste, and they make your tongue go black!

The original labels from the 1920’s pictured a grinning gollywog – unbelievably, back then images of black people were used to advertise Liquorice. This is seen as unacceptable today, of course, and by the late 80s manufacturers Trebor deleted the golly logo. It was replaced by a pirate with a black beard.

In the early 1990s the pirate logo was replaced by a rather boring black and white swirl design.

Cabana bars

Cabana bars died out in about 1984, and as they were made by Rowntree (sold to Nestle in 1989) they’re very unlikely to make a comeback.

Licorice Bootlaces

Long thin strips of licorice in the shape of boot laces.

Pineapple Chunks

Pineapple Flavour Hard Boiled Sweets.

Jamboree Bag

Bags of different sorts of sweets, with dodgy plastic toys and whistles etc, where are they now?

Rhubarb & Custard

Rhubarb and Custard flavoured boiled sweet, with it’s two colours.

Gobstoppers

Gobstoppers, known as jawbreakers in Canada and the United States, are a type of hard sweet or candy. They are usually round, usually range from about 1 cm across to 3 cm across (though much bigger gobstoppers can sometimes be found in Canadian/US candy stores, up to 8 cm in diameter) and are traditionally very hard.

The term gobstopper derives from ‘gob’, which is United Kingdom/Ireland slang for mouth.

Gobstoppers usually consist of several layers, each layer dissolving to reveal a different colored (and sometimes different flavoured) layer, before dissolving completely. Gobstoppers are sucked or licked, being too hard to bite without risking dental damage (hence the US title).

Gobstoppers have been sold in traditional sweet shops for at least a century, often sold by weight from jars. As gobstoppers dissolve very slowly, they last a very long time in the mouth, which is a major factor in their enduring popularity with children. Larger ones can take days or even weeks to fully dissolve, risking a different kind of dental damage.

In 2003, Taquandra Diggs, a nine year old girl in Starke, Florida, suffered severe burns, allegedly from biting down on a Wonka Everlasting Gobstopper that had been left out in the sun. Diggs and several other victims’ families filed lawsuits against Nestlé for medical bills resulting from plastic surgery as well as pain and suffering; the matters were later settled outside of court for an undisclosed amount.

A 2004 episode of the Discovery Channel television program "Myth Busters" episode subsection named Exploding Jawbreakers then demonstrated that heating a gobstopper in a microwave oven can cause the different layers inside to heat at different rates, yielding an explosive spray of very hot candy when compressed; Myth Busters crew members Adam Savage and Christine Chamberlain received light burns after a gobstopper exploded.

Acid Drops

Tongue-tinglingly sharp boiled sweets.

Barley Sugar

Barley sugar (or barley sugar candy) is a traditional variety of British boiled sweet, or hard candy, yellow or orange in colour with an extract of barley added as flavouring. It is similar to hard caramel candy in its texture and taste.

Barley sugars and other energy sweets are the only food allowed to be eaten in the New Zealand & Australian 40 Hour Famine, an annual event which draws attention to world hunger. A single barley sugar is allowed to be consumed once every 4 hours during the 40 Hour Famine. This applies to participants older than primary school age.

Bulls Eyes Humbug

Humbugs are a traditional hard boiled sweet available in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. They are usually flavoured with peppermint and striped in two different colours (often brown and tan). They have a hard outside and a soft toffee centre. Humbugs are typically cylinders with rounded ends wrapped in a twist of cellophane, or else pinched cylinders with a 90-degree turn between one end and the other (shaped like a pyramid with rounded edges), loose in a bag.

They are more often eaten in winter than summer, as they are considered "warming." The name of the candy is not related to the phrase "Bah, humbug" derived from Dickens’ A Christmas Carol. That expression implies a general dissatisfaction with the Christmas season. However, offering humbugs around Christmas time is now seen by some as humorous or ironic, and was featured in an episode of Blackadder in this manner.

A similar sweet is "bulls-eye" which has black and white stripes like a humbug but is spherical like an aniseed ball. These are peppermint flavoured and are also known as bullets in the UK as they are similar in size to smoothbore musket balls.

Love Hearts

Love Hearts are a type of confectionery manufactured by Swizzels Matlow in the United Kingdom. They are hard, fizzy, tablet-shaped sweets in a variety of fruit flavours featuring a short, love-related message on one side of the sweet.

The sweets are small and circular, approximately 19 mm in diameter, and 5 mm in height (including the embossed decorations). Both sides are embossed with a decoration, the rear with a large outline of a heart and the front with the message within an outline of a heart. On the front of the sweet the embossing is highlighted with a red colouring.

The main body of the sweet is coloured in one of the 6 colours – white, yellow, orange, green, purple or red. Especially for the darker red and purple colourings this colouring is somewhat blotchy.

Fruit Salads

Fruit Salad is a type of "Raspberry & Pineapple flavour chew" according to its packaging. This means that it is a chewy (gelatin-based) confectionery. Fruit Salad is manufactured by Barratt in Spain. Fruit Salad is very similar to Black Jack, which are also manufactured by Barratt.

Sweet ‘Cigarette’ Sticks

(sticks wrapped in paper, in packs that looked just like real cigarettes)

Candy cigarettes is a candy introduced in the early 20th century made out of chalky sugar, bubblegum or chocolate, wrapped in paper as to resemble cigarettes. Their place on the market has long been controversial because many critics believe the candy desensitizes children, leading them to become smokers later in life. Because of this, the selling of candy cigarettes has been banned in several countries such as Finland, Norway, the Republic of Ireland, Turkey and Saudi Arabia.

In the United States a ban was considered in 1970 and again in 1991, but was not passed into federal law. The U.S. state of North Dakota enacted a ban on candy cigarettes from 1953 until 1967. In Canada federal law prohibits candy cigarette branding that resembles real cigarette branding and the territory of Nunavut has banned all products that resemble cigarettes.

The Family Smoking and Prevention Control Act was misquoted as banning candy cigarettes. The Act bans any form of added flavoring in tobacco cigarettes other than menthol. It does not regulate the candy industry.

Candy cigarettes continue to be manufactured and consumed in many parts of the world. However, many manufacturers now describe their products as candy sticks, bubble gum, or candy.

Popeye Cigarettes marketed using the Popeye character were sold for a while and had red tips (to look like a lit cigarette) before being renamed candy sticks and being manufactured without the red tip.

Liquorice "Smoker’s Sets"

Sweet smokers sets with sweet cigarettes, tobacco and liquorice pipes. CONCERNS have been raised about the availability of candy-style imitation cigarettes. The sweets, which look remarkably like a hand-rolled cigarette and packaged in replica cigarette packets.

"Recently there has been a trend for buying so-called retro candy such as aniseed balls and spangles. It’s unfortunate that chocolate cigarettes have re surfaced but it’s not illegal to sell them and it’s really up to retailers to decide whether or not it’s a product with which they wish to be associated."

Aniseed Balls

Aniseed balls are a type of hard round sweet sold in the UK, New Zealand and Australia. They are shiny and dark brownish red, and hard like Gobstoppers.

Aniseed Balls are something you either love or hate! They are flavoured by aniseed oil (obviously!), and have a very strong aniseed flavour. They last for a long time in the mouth before dissolving and in the centre of the ball is a whole rapeseed that can be crushed.

Butterscotch

Butterscotch is a type of confectionery whose primary ingredients are brown sugar and butter, although other ingredients such as corn syrup, cream, vanilla, and salt are part of some recipes.

The ingredients for butterscotch are similar to toffee, but for butterscotch the sugar is boiled to the soft crack stage, and not hard crack as with toffee. Butterscotch sauce is often made into a syrup, which is used as a topping for ice cream (particularly sundaes).

The term butterscotch is also often used for the flavour of brown sugar and butter together even where actual confection butterscotch is not involved, e.g. butterscotch pudding.

Food historians have several theories regarding the name and origin of this confectionery, but none are conclusive. One explanation is the meaning "to cut or score" for the word "scotch", as the confection must be cut into pieces, or "scotched", before hardening. It is also possible that the "scotch" part of its name was derived from the word "scorch".

However, the word was first recorded in Doncaster, in England, where Samuel Parkinson began making the confectionery in 1817. Parkinson’s Butterscotch had royal approval and was one of Doncaster’s attractions until it ceased production in 1977. The recipe was revived in 2003 when a Doncaster businessman and his wife rediscovered the recipe on an old folded piece of paper inside one of the famous St Leger tins in their cellar.

Butterscotch is an example of a genericized trademark, originally a trademark of Parkinson’s.

Jelly Babies

Jelly babies are a type of soft confectionery that look like little babies in a variety of colours. There are currently several companies that make jelly babies, most predominantly Trebor Bassett (part of the Cadbury Group of companies, and famous for their liquorice allsorts) and also Rowntree (Nestlé).

Jelly Babies were launched by Bassett’s in 1918 in Sheffield as "Peace Babies" to mark the end of World War I. Production was suspended during World War II due to wartime shortages and the fact that the name had largely become ironic. In 1953 the product was relaunched as "Jelly Babies". In March 1989 Bassett’s were taken over by Cadbury Schweppes who had earlier acquired the Trebor brand.

Jelly Babies manufactured in the United Kingdom tend to be dusted in starch which is left over from the manufacturing process where it is used to aid release from the mould. Jelly Babies of Australian manufacture generally lack this coating.

Like many gummy sweets, they contain gelatin and are thus not suitable for vegetarians.

A popular science class experiment is to put them in a strong oxidising agent and see the resulting spectacular reaction. The experiment is commonly referred to as "Screaming jelly babies".

Each Bassett’s Jelly Baby now has an individual name and shape, colour and flavour: Brilliant (red – strawberry), Bubbles (yellow – lemon), Baby Bonny (pink – raspberry), Boofuls (green – lime), Bigheart (purple – blackcurrant) and Bumper (orange). The introduction of different shapes and names was a new innovation, circa 1989, prior to which all colours of jelly baby were a uniform shape.

Jelly Babies are similar in appearance to Gummi bears, which are better known outside of the United Kingdom, though the texture is different, Jelly Babies having a harder outer "crust" and a softer, less rubbery, centre.

In 2007, Bassett’s Jelly Babies changed to include only natural colours and ingredients.

In the early 1960s, after Beatles guitarist George Harrison revealed in an interview that he liked jelly babies, audiences showered him and the rest of the band with the sweets at live concerts and fans sent boxes of them as gifts.[citation needed] Unfortunately American fans could not obtain this soft British confection, replacing them with harder jelly beans instead. To the group’s discomfort, they were frequently pelted with jelly beans during concerts while in America.

Jelly babies are popular with several of the Doctors in the television series Doctor Who. The Second Doctor was the first to have them in his pockets. The Fourth Doctor had them throughout his time on the show. They also appear briefly with the Tenth Doctor In the 2007 episode "The Sound of Drums", The Master is seen eating them.

Dolly mixture

This is a British confection, consisting of a variety of multi-coloured fondant shapes, such as cubes and cylinders, with subtle flavourings. The mixtures also include hard-coated fondants in "round edged cube" shapes and sugar coated jellies. They are sold together, in a mixture in a medium-sized packet. It is produced by various companies in different countries; the most popular brands are those produced by Trebor Bassett (now a part of the Cadbury’s consortium)

Bonbons

The name bonbon (or bon-bon) stems from the French word bon, literally meaning “good”. In modern usage, the term "bonbon" usually refers to any of several types of sweets and other table centerpieces across the world.

The first bonbons come from the 17th century when they were made at the royal court especially for children who were eating them and chanting bon, bon!, French for good, good!.

Bonbon is also a colloquial expression (as in, "She sat around all day eating bon-bons while her husband was at work."). This sweet inspired Johann Strauss II to compose a waltz named, "Wiener Bonbons".

Chewits

Chewits is the brand name of a chewy, cuboid-shaped, soft taffy candy manufactured by Leaf International.

Chewits was launched in the UK in 1965. The sweets were originally manufactured in Southport, but after the closing of the factory in 2006 manufacture was moved to Slovakia. The original flavours consisted of Strawberry, Blackcurrant, Orange and Banana. Over the years more exotic flavours such as Ice Cream, Cola, Rhubarb & Custard, and Blue Mint were introduced as limited edition flavours. New Chewits pack designs, formats and flavours were launched in 2009.

Currently Chewits core flavour range includes Strawberry, Blackcurrant, Fruit Salad, Ice Cream and Orange. Ice Cream Chewits, originally released in 1989, were re-introduced in 2009 following an online petition and demand expressed on Facebook and Bebo.

Chewits were first advertised on television in 1976. The original advertisements featured the ‘Monster Muncher’, a Godzilla-resembling mascot on the hunt for something chewy to eat. The first ad featuring the Muncher threatening New York was made by French Gold Abbott and created by John Clive and Ian Whapshot. The first ad was so successful the sequel was delayed. The ‘Monster Muncher’ chomps and tramples humorously local and well-known international landmarks such as Barrow-in-Furness Bus Depot, a London block of flats, London Bridge, the Taj Mahal, the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and the Empire State Building. The ‘Monster Muncher’ could only be quelled by a pack of Chewits.

A spin-off computer game, The Muncher, was released for the ZX Spectrum in 1988.

The original adverts used claymation special effects, similar in style to those made famous in the movies of Ray Harryhausen. They also included a voiceover style reminiscent of a 1950s radio serial.

A subsequent advertisement, originally aired in 1995, plays on the over-the-top advertising style of the post-war era. To the tune of bright 50’s era orchestration, a salesy narrator exhorts viewers to try a variety of chewy consumer items in the essential guide to a chewier chew. The ad shows the ‘Monster Muncher’ sampling items such as Wellington boots, a rubber boat and a rubber plant in order to be ready for the chewiest of chews – Chewits.

In the late 1990s, Chewits experimented with ads showing multiple news casting dinosaur puppets. The catchphrase advice at the close of each ‘broadcast’ was to "do it before you chew it". This style of ads was relatively short-lived for Chewits.

With a change of advertising agencies, the puppets were replaced by colourful 2D animations. The ‘Monster Muncher’ was re-introduced as ‘Chewie’ in two popular adverts from this time. In the first, which aired in 2000, Chewie roller skates on two buses through a busy city scene. The second, which went out a year later in 2001, shows Chewie waterskiing at a popular seaside resort. The ads included a rendition of the 1994 hit song ‘I like to move it’ by Reel 2 Real, with the chorus, "I like to Chewit Chewit."

In 2003, after a further shift in advertising agencies, a new ad was aired showing a wide range of animals auditioning to be the new face of Chewits. The ad announced the return of the iconic dinosaur Chewie mascot, now dubbed ‘Chewie the Chewitsaurus’.

In 2009, Chewits introduced the new Chewie the Chewitsaurus look, showing a contemporary, computer-game-style slick design. Chewie the Chewitsaurus features on all Chewits packaging and sponsorship activity.

Fizzy Cola Bottles

Remember that fizzy, sour cola taste you used to get from these? I think these are another sweet you either love or hate. Real cola tasting Giant fizzy bottles.

Milk Bottles

These white milk bottle shaped chewy white sweets are also known as milk gums. They were pretty popular in the UK, and are still selling well today repackaged as retro sweets.

Pacers

These were a kind of Opal Fruits spin-off, but came in peppermint and spearmint flavours. They were discontinued sometime in the 80’s.

Sweet Bananas

These yummy sweet bananas, soft, juicy chews with a lovely mellow banana flavour.

Mackintosh’s Toffee

Mackintosh’s Toffee is a sweet created by John Mackintosh.

Mackintosh opened up his sweets shop in Halifax, Yorkshire, England in 1890, and the idea for Mackintosh’s Toffee, not too hard and not too soft, came soon after. In 1969, Mackintosh’s merged with rival Rowntree to form Rowntree Mackintosh, which merged with Nestle in 1988.

The product is often credited with being over 100 years old.

The toffee is sold in bags containing a random assortment of individual wrapped flavoured toffees. The flavours are (followed by wrapping colour): Malt (Blue), Harrogate (Yellow), Mint (Green), Egg & Cream (Orange), Coconut (Pink), Toffee (Red). The red wrapped toffees do not display a flavour on the wrapper. The product’s subtitle is "Toffee De Luxe" and its motto "a tradition worth sharing".

Space Dust

Space Dust the candy that pops when placed in your mouth.

Bazooka bubble gum

It was first marketed shortly after World War II in the U.S. by the Topps Company based in Brooklyn, New York. The gum was packaged in a patriotic red, white, and blue color scheme. Beginning in 1953, Topps changed the packaging to include small comic strips with the gum, featuring the character "Bazooka Joe". There are 50 different "Bazooka Joe" comic-strip wrappers to collect. The product has been virtually unchanged in over 50 years.

The Topps company expanded the flavors, making them Original, Strawberry Shake, Cherry Berry, Watermelon Whirl, and Grape Rage. The Strawberry flavor is packaged in a pink and white wrapper and the Grape in a purple and white wrapper. Bazooka gum can also be found in a sugar free variety with the standard bubble gum flavor and a "Flavor Blasts" variety, claimed to have longer lasting, more intense taste. Bazooka gum comes in 2 different sizes.

Bazooka bubblegum is sold in many countries, often with Bazooka Joe comic strips translated into the local language. Bazooka gum is sold in Canada with cartoons in both English and French, depending upon the city. In Israel, manufactured under license to Elite, the cartoons are written in Hebrew. The gum was also sold in Yugoslavia and later in Slovenia until the local licensee allowed their license to expire in 2006. The "Bazooka Joe" cartoons are about "Bazooka Joe" and his friends. There are also "Bazooka Joe" t-shirts in return for 15 Bazooka Joe comics and .99 while supplies last. But the offer has been discontinued.

In May 2009 it was announced that the Bazooka Joe comic was to be adapted into a Hollywood movie.

Traffic Light lollies

These were a red yellow and green lolly that was a childhood favourtite sweet for many.

Black Magic Chocolates

What a huge disappointment these chocolates are!! A few years ago Nestle made an almighty mistake by doing away with THE best brand of dark chocolates, favourites of many thousands of people, and replacing them with cardboard pretend chocolate squares which tasted cheap and nasty. Most boxes ended up in the bin. Last year I had a letter from Nestle saying they were bringing the classics back, fantastic, I was straight to the shop for some, so bad was my addiction, but horribly they are nothing like the originals.

The dont taste or smell the same, the centres are hard and taste of chemicals, like long gone off chocolates. The bottom line is this, why change them in the first place? and when you realised you had made a mistake why not bring back the originals instead of these tacky replacements. very sad, and I still havent found any chocs like Black Magic, I still have original boxes with ribbons from the 1950’s, now they were class.

Texan

Ultra-chewy, chocolate-covered nougat bar launched in the mid-70s; disappeared in the mid-80s.

Banjo

Boring two-fingered wafer bar, lasted for most of the 80s.

Callard & Bowser Creamline Toffees

A 2001 casualty; they were better than Toffos.

Amazin Raisin

1971-78 – the sweets equivalent of rum’n’raisin ice cream.

Freshen Up

Chewing gum with a liquid centre, an 80s innovation.

Bluebird Toffee

A classic, but a recent casualty of confectionery industry takeovers.

Jap Desserts

These old coconut sweets (coconut was often known as ‘Jap’) died a death in the early 2000s.

Counters (Galaxy)

Harmless chocolate beans cruelly cut off.

Pink Panther

Extraordinary strawberry-flavoured chocolate bars, thin like Milky Bars. An acquired taste.

Bandit

Wafer biscuit – a challenger to Penguins.

Club bars

From Jacobs. The full range has been withdrawn, but Orange is still available. Symbol guide: plain = jack of clubs; milk = golf ball; mint = green leaf. Bog-standard but likable for thick chocolate.

Nutty Pure

80s bar, with a smoky brown see-through wrapper. Peanuts encase a fudge-type caramel log centre.

Double Agent

Extremely artificial blackcurrant- or apple-flavoured boiled sweets, with a sherbet centre and spy questions on the wrapper. Classic cold war confectionery.

Mighty Imp’s

Mighty Imps were really old fashioned liquorice and menthol pellets that used to turn your tongue black… lovely!

They were sugar free and were marketed to help you keep a clear voice and protect against a sore throat (due to the menthol content I suspect).

Zoom

This ice lolly on a stick was shaped like a rocket and was made up of three sections, each with its own distinct flavour. In sequence this was lime, lemon and strawberry.

Refreshers

Fruit flavour fizzy sweets in a roll. Raspberry, lemon, lime and orange flavours. Refreshingly fizzly.

White Chocolate Mice

These white chocolate mice were cream flavoured and are silky smooth on your tongue. You certainly will not want the cat to get these sweet mice!!

The top 10 Best Sales – Through the ages

1966

1 Mars bar
2 Cadbury’s Dairy Milk
3 Wrigley’s Spearmint Gum
4 Milky Way
5 Polo
6 Kit Kat
7 Crunchie
8 Wrigley’s Arrowmint Gum
9 Rowntree’s Fruit Pastilles
10 Maltesers

1978

1 Mars bar
2 Kit Kat
3 Cadbury’s Dairy Milk
4 Twix
5 Yorkie
6 Milky Way
7 Bounty
8 Maltesers
9 Aero
10 Smarties

1988

1 Mars bar
2 Kit Kat
3 Marathon
4 Wispa
5 Polo
6 Extra Strong Mints
7 Fruit Pastilles
8 Flake
9 Rolo
10 Double Decker

1997

1 Kit Kat
2 Mars bar
3 Cadbury’s Dairy Milk
4 Roses
5 Twix
6 Wrigley’s Extra
7 Quality Street
8 Snickers
9 Maltesers
10 Galaxy

2004

1 Cadbury’s Dairy Milk
2 Wrigleys Extra
3 Maltesers
4 Galaxy
5 Mars bar
6 Kit Kat
7 Celebrations
8 Quality Street
9 Haribo (total sales)
10 Roses

Can anyone add to the list?

(Post from rapid prototyping companies in china blog)

Cool Abs Plastic Fast Prototype Producers China pictures

Check out these abs plastic rapid prototype manufacturers china photos:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: SR-71 Blackbird (tail view)
abs plastic rapid prototype manufacturers china
Image by Chris Devers
See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia report.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in far more hostile airspace or with such total impunity than the SR-71, the world’s quickest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s efficiency and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technologies developments during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time throughout 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its final flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (two,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane over to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. &quotKelly&quot Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 18ft five 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (five.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft five 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (five.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Materials:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-variety material) to decrease radar cross-section Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature large inlet shock cones.

Extended Description:
No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated in much more hostile airspace or with such full impunity than the SR-71 Blackbird. It is the quickest aircraft propelled by air-breathing engines. The Blackbird’s efficiency and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technologies developments in the course of the Cold War. The airplane was conceived when tensions with communist Eastern Europe reached levels approaching a complete-blown crisis in the mid-1950s. U.S. military commanders desperately needed correct assessments of Soviet worldwide military deployments, specifically close to the Iron Curtain. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s subsonic U-2 (see NASM collection) reconnaissance aircraft was an able platform but the U. S. Air Force recognized that this reasonably slow aircraft was already vulnerable to Soviet interceptors. They also understood that the rapid development of surface-to-air missile systems could put U-2 pilots at grave threat. The danger proved reality when a U-two was shot down by a surface to air missile over the Soviet Union in 1960.

Lockheed’s initial proposal for a new higher speed, higher altitude, reconnaissance aircraft, to be capable of avoiding interceptors and missiles, centered on a design and style propelled by liquid hydrogen. This proved to be impracticable because of considerable fuel consumption. Lockheed then reconfigured the design for traditional fuels. This was feasible and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), currently flying the Lockheed U-two, issued a production contract for an aircraft designated the A-12. Lockheed’s clandestine ‘Skunk Works’ division (headed by the gifted style engineer Clarence L. &quotKelly&quot Johnson) created the A-12 to cruise at Mach three.two and fly nicely above 18,288 m (60,000 feet). To meet these challenging specifications, Lockheed engineers overcame a lot of daunting technical challenges. Flying a lot more than 3 occasions the speed of sound generates 316° C (600° F) temperatures on external aircraft surfaces, which are adequate to melt conventional aluminum airframes. The style group chose to make the jet’s external skin of titanium alloy to which shielded the internal aluminum airframe. Two standard, but very strong, afterburning turbine engines propelled this outstanding aircraft. These energy plants had to operate across a massive speed envelope in flight, from a takeoff speed of 334 kph (207 mph) to far more than three,540 kph (two,200 mph). To stop supersonic shock waves from moving inside the engine intake causing flameouts, Johnson’s group had to design a complicated air intake and bypass method for the engines.

Skunk Performs engineers also optimized the A-12 cross-section style to exhibit a low radar profile. Lockheed hoped to accomplish this by carefully shaping the airframe to reflect as little transmitted radar power (radio waves) as possible, and by application of particular paint made to absorb, rather than reflect, those waves. This treatment became a single of the very first applications of stealth technology, but it by no means entirely met the style ambitions.

Test pilot Lou Schalk flew the single-seat A-12 on April 24, 1962, right after he became airborne accidentally for the duration of high-speed taxi trials. The airplane showed fantastic guarantee but it necessary considerable technical refinement prior to the CIA could fly the very first operational sortie on Could 31, 1967 – a surveillance flight over North Vietnam. A-12s, flown by CIA pilots, operated as portion of the Air Force’s 1129th Unique Activities Squadron under the &quotOxcart&quot system. Whilst Lockheed continued to refine the A-12, the U. S. Air Force ordered an interceptor version of the aircraft designated the YF-12A. The Skunk Works, however, proposed a &quotspecific mission&quot version configured to conduct post-nuclear strike reconnaissance. This technique evolved into the USAF’s familiar SR-71.

Lockheed constructed fifteen A-12s, which includes a special two-seat trainer version. Two A-12s had been modified to carry a unique reconnaissance drone, designated D-21. The modified A-12s were redesignated M-21s. These were created to take off with the D-21 drone, powered by a Marquart ramjet engine mounted on a pylon amongst the rudders. The M-21 then hauled the drone aloft and launched it at speeds high adequate to ignite the drone’s ramjet motor. Lockheed also constructed three YF-12As but this sort by no means went into production. Two of the YF-12As crashed throughout testing. Only a single survives and is on display at the USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio. The aft section of one particular of the &quotwritten off&quot YF-12As which was later employed along with an SR-71A static test airframe to manufacture the sole SR-71C trainer. One particular SR-71 was lent to NASA and designated YF-12C. Including the SR-71C and two SR-71B pilot trainers, Lockheed constructed thirty-two Blackbirds. The very first SR-71 flew on December 22, 1964. Since of extreme operational costs, military strategists decided that the more capable USAF SR-71s must replace the CIA’s A-12s. These have been retired in 1968 following only a single year of operational missions, mostly over southeast Asia. The Air Force’s 1st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (element of the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) took more than the missions, flying the SR-71 beginning in the spring of 1968.

Following the Air Force began to operate the SR-71, it acquired the official name Blackbird– for the specific black paint that covered the airplane. This paint was formulated to absorb radar signals, to radiate some of the tremendous airframe heat generated by air friction, and to camouflage the aircraft against the dark sky at high altitudes.

Experience gained from the A-12 program convinced the Air Force that flying the SR-71 safely needed two crew members, a pilot and a Reconnaissance Systems Officer (RSO). The RSO operated with the wide array of monitoring and defensive systems installed on the airplane. This gear included a sophisticated Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) program that could jam most acquisition and targeting radar. In addition to an array of sophisticated, higher-resolution cameras, the aircraft could also carry gear designed to record the strength, frequency, and wavelength of signals emitted by communications and sensor devices such as radar. The SR-71 was made to fly deep into hostile territory, avoiding interception with its tremendous speed and higher altitude. It could operate safely at a maximum speed of Mach three.three at an altitude far more than sixteen miles, or 25,908 m (85,000 ft), above the earth. The crew had to put on pressure suits equivalent to these worn by astronauts. These suits were needed to defend the crew in the occasion of sudden cabin stress loss although at operating altitudes.

To climb and cruise at supersonic speeds, the Blackbird’s Pratt &amp Whitney J-58 engines have been developed to operate constantly in afterburner. Even though this would seem to dictate high fuel flows, the Blackbird truly achieved its very best &quotgas mileage,&quot in terms of air nautical miles per pound of fuel burned, for the duration of the Mach three+ cruise. A standard Blackbird reconnaissance flight may require numerous aerial refueling operations from an airborne tanker. Each time the SR-71 refueled, the crew had to descend to the tanker’s altitude, generally about 6,000 m to 9,000 m (20,000 to 30,000 ft), and slow the airplane to subsonic speeds. As velocity decreased, so did frictional heat. This cooling effect caused the aircraft’s skin panels to shrink considerably, and these covering the fuel tanks contracted so considerably that fuel leaked, forming a distinctive vapor trail as the tanker topped off the Blackbird. As quickly as the tanks have been filled, the jet’s crew disconnected from the tanker, relit the afterburners, and again climbed to high altitude.

Air Force pilots flew the SR-71 from Kadena AB, Japan, all through its operational profession but other bases hosted Blackbird operations, also. The 9th SRW sometimes deployed from Beale AFB, California, to other locations to carryout operational missions. Cuban missions were flown directly from Beale. The SR-71 did not commence to operate in Europe until 1974, and then only temporarily. In 1982, when the U.S. Air Force based two aircraft at Royal Air Force Base Mildenhall to fly monitoring mission in Eastern Europe.

When the SR-71 became operational, orbiting reconnaissance satellites had currently replaced manned aircraft to collect intelligence from sites deep within Soviet territory. Satellites could not cover every single geopolitical hotspot so the Blackbird remained a crucial tool for worldwide intelligence gathering. On a lot of occasions, pilots and RSOs flying the SR-71 supplied information that proved important in formulating effective U. S. foreign policy. Blackbird crews offered critical intelligence about the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and its aftermath, and pre- and post-strike imagery of the 1986 raid carried out by American air forces on Libya. In 1987, Kadena-based SR-71 crews flew a number of missions over the Persian Gulf, revealing Iranian Silkworm missile batteries that threatened commercial shipping and American escort vessels.

As the efficiency of space-primarily based surveillance systems grew, along with the effectiveness of ground-primarily based air defense networks, the Air Force started to lose enthusiasm for the pricey system and the 9th SRW ceased SR-71 operations in January 1990. Regardless of protests by military leaders, Congress revived the system in 1995. Continued wrangling more than operating budgets, even so, soon led to final termination. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration retained two SR-71As and the one SR-71B for high-speed investigation projects and flew these airplanes till 1999.

On March six, 1990, the service profession of one Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird ended with a record-setting flight. This particular airplane bore Air Force serial quantity 64-17972. Lt. Col. Ed Yeilding and his RSO, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Vida, flew this aircraft from Los Angeles to Washington D.C. in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging a speed of three,418 kph (2,124 mph). At the conclusion of the flight, ‘972 landed at Dulles International Airport and taxied into the custody of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum. At that time, Lt. Col. Vida had logged 1,392.7 hours of flight time in Blackbirds, far more than that of any other crewman.

This certain SR-71 was also flown by Tom Alison, a former National Air and Space Museum’s Chief of Collections Management. Flying with Detachment 1 at Kadena Air Force Base, Okinawa, Alison logged far more than a dozen ‘972 operational sorties. The aircraft spent twenty-4 years in active Air Force service and accrued a total of 2,801.1 hours of flight time.

Wingspan: 55’7&quot
Length: 107’5&quot
Height: 18’6&quot
Weight: 170,000 Lbs

Reference and Further Reading:

Crickmore, Paul F. Lockheed SR-71: The Secret Missions Exposed. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996.

Francillon, Rene J. Lockheed Aircraft Because 1913. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987.

Johnson, Clarence L. Kelly: A lot more Than My Share of It All. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Functions. Leicester, U.K.: Midland Counties Publishing Ltd., 1995.

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird curatorial file, Aeronautics Division, National Air and Space Museum.

DAD, 11-11-01

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Additive Manufacturing – Precision in a Prototype

Additive Manufacturing – Precision in a Prototype

Back in the day, producing a model or prototype needed you to begin with a chunk of some raw material such as clay, wood, or metal, and to gradually chip away at it till it formed the prototype of your style. This is often identified as subtractive manufacturing, given that it includes subtracting from the original material to generate your prototype or item. Additive manufacturing takes a diverse approach – the opposite method, in truth. As an alternative of subtracting layers of components, it steadily adds layers exactly where they are necessary in order to form the prototype. This approach is particularly beneficial when it comes to metal prototyping.

Additive manufacturing is especially useful in the location of metal prototyping for a selection of motives. One of the most distinctive properties of metal is that it is challenging. This means that a metal prototype will be durable and can even be utilized in production. But because metal is so tough, it can also be tough to cut into with accuracy to kind a model by subtractive manufacturing. In fact, it can be extremely challenging to create an correct model or prototype by this technique. It comes with a lot of challenges, and that is why it is hardly ever utilized any longer.

By sintering thin layers of powdered metal to 1 yet another, you can progressively add to your prototype till you have a finished model. Additive manufacturing tends to make it much less complicated to form metal prototypes with precision. Instead of chipping away at hardened metal, trying not to do any more damage than necessary, metal sintering makes it possible for you to bond with each other powdered metal a single layer at a time. Every single layer is only twenty microns thick, so you can attain unparalleled levels of detail in your metal prototyping by using this method. Creating a metal prototype has in no way been simpler or more accurate.

It is important for metal prototyping to be as correct as feasible. These metal prototypes are normally used as components in machines, and if they are not constructed precisely to specifications, they can trigger damage to important machinery. Additive manufacturing makes it possible for you to develop correct prototypes without obtaining to manufacture them in bulk just before you are positive that the design is just appropriate for what you need to have. Being able to create a precise metal prototype that you can in fact use implies that you will be capable to reach a design conclusion much faster than you would have been able to if you had utilized significantly less accurate prototypes.

Visit http://www.directedMFG.com for more info regarding why this company is one of the prime additive manufacturing firms in the world. As one particular of the premier metal prototyping companies, DirectedMFG continues to provide its buyers with merchandise and solutions that meet and exceed expectations. Make contact with DirectedMFG nowadays by calling 714-546-1113.

Discover Far more Metal Prototype Articles

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Nice Prototype Solutions photos

A handful of good prototype solutions photos I located:

Bochum – Eisenbahnmuseum Dahlhausen 66 002 DB-Baureihe 66 01
prototype services
Image by Daniel Mennerich
The DB Class 66 was a class of two Deutsche Bundesbahn (DB) locomotives created for fast goods train and passenger train services on the major and branch lines of Deutsche Bundesbahn (DB), the national railway of the former West Germany.

The Class 66 had been one of several newly created locomotive classes, the so-named Neubauloks, constructed for the DB soon after the Second Planet War. The 66s had a prime speed of 100 km/h and an axle load of only 15 tonnes which made them ideally suited to such duties. They had been intended to replace the former state railway (Länderbahn) locomotives of DRG classes 38.ten (ex-Prussian P 8), 78 (ex-Prussian T 18) and 93 (ex-Prussian T 14). Nonetheless rising competitors from diesel locomotives meant that no far more engines had been built soon after the two prototype, even even though they completely met all expectations and were a quite productive style. The Class 66 was the penultimate locomotive class to be constructed as portion of the DB’s Neubaulok construction programme.

Sinsheim – Technikmuseum Sinsheim – Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde 101-102 Air France F-BVFB 01
prototype services
Image by Daniel Mennerich
Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde is a retired turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner or supersonic transport (SST). It is one particular of only two SSTs to have entered industrial service the other was the Tupolev Tu-144. Concorde was jointly created and developed by Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) beneath an Anglo-French treaty. First flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued commercial flights for 27 years.

Among other destinations, Concorde flew standard transatlantic flights from London Heathrow and Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport to New York JFK, Washington Dulles and Barbados it flew these routes in significantly less than half the time of other airliners. With only 20 aircraft built, the development of Concorde was a substantial economic loss Air France and British Airways also received considerable government subsidies to obtain them. Concorde was retired in 2003 due to a basic downturn in the aviation industry soon after the type’s only crash in 2000, the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001, and a choice by Airbus, the successor firm of Aérospatiale and BAC, to discontinue maintenance help.

A total of 20 aircraft were built in France and the United Kingdom six of these had been prototypes and development aircraft. Seven every single were delivered to Air France and British Airways. Concorde’s name reflects the improvement agreement between the United Kingdom and France. In the UK, any or all of the type—unusually for an aircraft—are identified basically as &quotConcorde&quot, with no an report. The aircraft is regarded by many people as an aviation icon and an engineering marvel.

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Good Plastic Prototype Components Factory photographs

A few nice plastic prototype parts factory photos I located:

Alpine Renault
plastic prototype parts factory
Image by pedrosimoes7
Motorclássico, FIL, Parque das Nações, Lisbon, Portugal

in Wikipedia

Alpine (French pronunciation: ​[alpin]) was a French manufacturer of racing and sports cars that used rear-mounted Renault engines.
Jean Rédélé (1922 – 2007), the founder of Alpine, was initially a Dieppe garage proprietor, who started to attain considerable competitors accomplishment in 1 of the few French vehicles developed just after Globe War two. The business was bought in 1978 by Renault.

History

Early days
Employing Renault 4CVs, Rédélé gained class wins in a quantity of main events, which includes the Mille Miglia and Coupe des Alpes. As his expertise with the small 4CV constructed up, he incorporated many modifications, like for example, special five-speed gear boxes replacing the original 3-speed unit. To provide a lighter vehicle he constructed a quantity of specific versions with lightweight aluminium bodies: he drove in these at Le Mans and Sebring with some accomplishment in the early 1950s.

Encouraged by the development of these cars and consequent consumer demand, he founded the Société Anonyme des Automobiles Alpine in 1954. The firm was named Alpine following his Coupe des Alpes successes. He did not realise that more than in England the prior year, Sunbeam had introduced a sports coupe derived from the Sunbeam Talbot and known as the Sunbeam Alpine. This naming problem was to result in difficulties for Alpine all through its history.

Coach Alpine A106 Mille Milles 1955 (Very first alpine).

In 1955, he worked with the Chappe brothers to be amongst the pioneers of auto glass fibre construction and produced a little coupe, based on 4CV mechanicals and known as the Alpine A106. It utilized the platform chassis of the original Renault 4CV. The A106 accomplished a quantity of successes by way of the 1950s and was joined by a low and fashionable cabriolet. Styling for this vehicle was contracted to the Italian designer Giovanni Michelotti. Beneath the glassfibre physique was a extremely stiff chassis primarily based on a central tubular backbone which was to be the hallmark of all Alpines built.

Alpine A110 Berlinette (1962-1967).

Alpine then took the Michelotti cabriolet style and created a 2+two closed coupe (or ‘berlinette’) physique for it: this became the Alpine A108, now featuring the Dauphine Gordini 845 cc engine, which on later models was bored out to give a capacity of 904 cc or (subsequently) 998 cc.[1] The A108 was constructed amongst 1958 and 1963.

1960s

In 1962, the A108 begun to be made also in Brazil, by Willys-Overland. It was the Willys Interlagos (berlineta, coupé and convertible).

Willys Interlagos Berlineta, the Brazilian A108
By now the car’s mechanicals have been beginning to show their age in Europe. Alpine were already operating closely with Renault and when the Renault R8 saloon was introduced in 1962. Alpine redeveloped their chassis and made a number of minor body changes to enable the use of R8 mechanicals.

This new car was the A110 Berlinette Tour de France, named after a profitable run with the Alpine A108 in the 1962 occasion. Starting with a 956 cc engine of 51 bhp (38 kW), the identical chassis and physique developed with reasonably minor alterations more than the years to the stage where, by 1974, the small car was handling 1800 cc engines creating 180 bhp (134 kW)+. With a competition weight for the car of about 620 kg (1,367 lb), the functionality was superb.

Alpine accomplished rising good results in rallying, and by 1968 had been allocated the complete Renault competitors price range. The close collaboration permitted Alpines to be sold and maintained in France by typical Renault dealerships. Real best level success started in 1968 with outright wins in the Coupe des Alpes and other international events. By this time the competition vehicles have been fitted with 1440 cc engines derived from the Renault R8 Gordini. Competitors successes became quite a few, helped considering that Alpine were the 1st business totally to exploit the competitors components homologation rules.

1970s

In 1971, Alpine accomplished a 1-2-three finish in the Monte Carlo rally, employing cars with engines derived from the Renault 16. In 1973, they repeated the 1-2-3 Monte Carlo outcome and went on to win the Globe Rally Championship outright, beating Porsche, Lancia and Ford. Throughout all of this time, production of the Alpine A110 increased and manufacturing offers had been struck for A110s and A108s with factories in a number of other nations which includes Spain, Mexico, Brazil and Bulgaria.
1973 brought the international petrol crisis, which had profound effects on numerous specialist car makers worldwide. From a total Alpine production of 1421 in 1972, the numbers of cars sold dropped to 957 in 1974 and the firm was bailed out by means of a takeover by Renault. Alpine’s problems had been compounded by the want for them to develop a replacement for the A110 and launch the vehicle just when European petrol prices leapt via the roof.

Alpine A110 Berlinette Group 4 (1971-1974).

Through the 1970s, Alpine continued to campaign the A110, and later the Alpine A310 replacement automobile. However, to compete with Alpine’s achievement, other makers created increasingly specific cars, notably the Lancia Stratos which was based closely on the A110’s size and rear-engined idea, though incorporating a Ferrari engine. Alpine’s own automobiles, nevertheless based on the 1962 design and making use of a surprising quantity of production parts, became increasingly uncompetitive. In 1974 Alpine constructed a series of factory racing Renault 17 Gordinis (a single driven by Jean-Luc Thérier) that won the Press on Regardless World Rally Championship round in Michigan, USA.

In reality, having achieved the rally championship, and with Renault funds now fully behind them, Alpine had set their sights on a new target. The subsequent aim was to win at Le Mans. Renault had also taken more than the Gordini tuning firm and merged the two to type Renault Sport. A quantity of increasingly productive sports racing automobiles appeared, culminating in the 1978 Le Mans win with the Renault Alpine A442B. This was fitted with a turbo-charged engine Alpine had been the 1st firm to run in and win an international rally with a turbo automobile as far back as 1972 when Jean-Luc Thérier took a specially modified A110 to victory on the Critérium des Cévennes.

1980s
Alpine Renault continued to develop their variety of models all by means of the 1980s. The A310 was the next modern interpretation of the A110. The Alpine A310 was a sports auto with a rear-mounted engine and was initially powered by a four-cylinder 1.6 L sourced Renault 17 TS/Gordini engine. In 1976 the A310 was restyled by Robert Opron and fitted with the a lot more effective and newly developed V6 PRV engine. The 2.six L motor was modified by Alpine with a 4-speed manual gearbox. Later they would use a 5-speed manual gearbox and with the group four model get a greater tune with a lot more cubic capacity and 3 twin barrel Weber carburetors.

Alpine A310 V6 GT Pack (1983-1984).

Following the A310 Alpine transformed into the new Alpine GTA range made from plastic and polyester elements, commencing with normally aspirated PRV V6 engines. In 1985 the V6 Turbo was introduced to total the variety. This automobile was faster and much more strong than the normally aspirated version. In 1986 polyester components were cut for the initial time by robot employing a high pressure (3500 bar) water jet, .15 mm (.01 in) in diameter at three instances the speed of sound. In the exact same year the American specification V6 Turbo was created.

In 1987 fitment of anti-pollution systems allowed the V6 Turbo to be distributed to Switzerland, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands. 1989 saw the launch of the restricted edition GTA Mille Miles to celebrate Alpine’s 35th anniversary. Production was limited to 100 cars, all fitted with ABS braking, polished wheels, unique leather interior and paintwork. This version was not accessible in RHD.

1990s

1990 saw the launch of the specific edition wide bodied GTA Le Mans. The car wore polyester wheel arch extensions with a one piece front. Wheels had been 3 piece BBS style produced by ACT, 8×16&quot front &amp 10×17&quot rear. Otherwise identical mechanically to the V6 Turbo, the engine was fitted with a catalytic converter and energy was reduced to 185 bhp (138 kW). This model was obtainable in the UK and RHD versions carried a numbered plaque on the dashboard. The Le Mans is the most collectable and beneficial GTA derivative, since only 325 have been made (299 LHD and 26 RHD). These have been obtainable from Renault dealers in the UK and the country’s motoring press are belatedly recognising the GTA series as the ‘great unsung supercar of the 1980s’

Alpine V6 Turbo Le Mans 1990

The Alpine A610 was launched in 1991. It was re-styled inside and out but was nevertheless recognisable as a GTA derivative. The chassis structure was extensively reworked but the central box principal remained the identical. The front was entirely re-developed the interior was also significantly improved. Air-conditioning and energy steering were fitted as common. The total production run for A610s derivatives was 818 vehicles 67 RHD and 751 LHD. Soon after production of the A610 ended, the Alpine factory in Dieppe produced the Renault Sport Spider and a new era was to begin.
The final Alpine, an A610, rolled off the Dieppe line at 7. April 1995, Renault abandoning the Alpine name. This was constantly a issue in the UK industry. Alpines could not be sold in the UK beneath their own name due to the fact Sunbeam owned the trade mark (due to the fact of the mid-50s Sunbeam Alpine Mk I). In the 1970s, for example Dieppe have been building modified Renault R5s for the planet wide market. The rest of the planet knew them as R5 Alpines but in the UK they had to be renamed to R5 Gordini. Strangely enough with the quite a few organization takeovers that have occurred, it is another French organization, PSA (Peugot/Talbot/Citroën) who now own the British Alpine trademark.

The Alpine factory in Dieppe continues to expand in the 1980s they constructed the particular R5 Turbo vehicles, following the rear engined formula they have usually employed. They constructed all Clio Williams and RenaultSport Spiders. The factory proudly put its Alpine badges on the constructed early batches of the mid engined Clio series one particular Clio V6. The Clio Series two was also assembled there with far more recent RenaultSport Clio 172 and RenaultSport Clio 182s.
Between 1989 and 1995, a new Alpine named the A710 &quotBerlinette two&quot, was designed and two prototypes were constructed. Due to the expense of the project (600 millions Francs), and as adding modern equipment and interior would compromise the value and performances, the project was canceled.

Present

The Dieppe factory is identified as the producer of RenaultSport models that are sold worldwide. This was originally the &quotAlpine&quot factory that Renault gained when they acquired the brand in 1973. Some of the Renault Sport models produced in Dieppe are presently the Mégane Renault Sport, Clio Renault Sport and the new Mégane Renault Sport dCi is to be constructed on Renault’s Dieppe assembly line. All the RenaultSport track-, tarmac- and gravel-racing Meganes and Clios are also created in the Dieppe factory.

In October 2007, it has been reported that Renault’s marketing boss Patrick Blain has revealed that there are plans for a number of sports cars in Renault’s future lineup, but stressed that the first model will not arrive till following 2010. Blain confirmed that Renault is unlikely to pick a new name for its future sports auto and will most likely go with Alpine to brand it. Blain described it as getting a “radical sports car” and not just a sports version of a standard model.

The new Alpine sports auto will most likely have a version of the Nissan GT-R’s Premium Midship platform.

The presence of sportier models in the Renault line-up would give the French automaker a far better chance to capitalize on its Formula A single prowess, obtaining won two back-to-back globe championships with Fernando Alonso, translating these efforts to its production automobiles is a moot point simply because Renault’s lineup is lacking in the sports automobile department. Management is hoping to alter all that and is keen to start developing sports cars again, as it has in the previous, with the revival of the legendary Alpine label.

In France there is a massive network of Alpine enthusiasts clubs. Clubs exist in several countries which includes the UK, USA, Australia, Japan.

In February 2009, Renault confirmed that plans to revive the Alpine brand have been frozen as a direct result of the 2008-2009 worldwide financial crisis and recession.

In May possibly 2012, photos of a new Renault Alpine idea titled as Renault Alpine A110-50[six] had been leaked prior to its debut in Monaco.

According to a Spanish automobile magazine it is said that the road version will be released in 2013.[citation needed]

In November 2012, Renault and Caterham announced plans to create reasonably priced race automobiles under the Alpine brand which are to be accessible in 2016.[8] In this partnership, Caterham will obtain 50% ownership of Alpine while the new cars will be developed at Renault’s Dieppe, France assembly plant.

(Post from rapid prototyping companies in china blog)