Tag Archives: Factory

Good Plastic Prototype Components Factory photographs

A few nice plastic prototype parts factory photos I located:

Alpine Renault
plastic prototype parts factory
Image by pedrosimoes7
Motorclássico, FIL, Parque das Nações, Lisbon, Portugal

in Wikipedia

Alpine (French pronunciation: ​[alpin]) was a French manufacturer of racing and sports cars that used rear-mounted Renault engines.
Jean Rédélé (1922 – 2007), the founder of Alpine, was initially a Dieppe garage proprietor, who started to attain considerable competitors accomplishment in 1 of the few French vehicles developed just after Globe War two. The business was bought in 1978 by Renault.


Early days
Employing Renault 4CVs, Rédélé gained class wins in a quantity of main events, which includes the Mille Miglia and Coupe des Alpes. As his expertise with the small 4CV constructed up, he incorporated many modifications, like for example, special five-speed gear boxes replacing the original 3-speed unit. To provide a lighter vehicle he constructed a quantity of specific versions with lightweight aluminium bodies: he drove in these at Le Mans and Sebring with some accomplishment in the early 1950s.

Encouraged by the development of these cars and consequent consumer demand, he founded the Société Anonyme des Automobiles Alpine in 1954. The firm was named Alpine following his Coupe des Alpes successes. He did not realise that more than in England the prior year, Sunbeam had introduced a sports coupe derived from the Sunbeam Talbot and known as the Sunbeam Alpine. This naming problem was to result in difficulties for Alpine all through its history.

Coach Alpine A106 Mille Milles 1955 (Very first alpine).

In 1955, he worked with the Chappe brothers to be amongst the pioneers of auto glass fibre construction and produced a little coupe, based on 4CV mechanicals and known as the Alpine A106. It utilized the platform chassis of the original Renault 4CV. The A106 accomplished a quantity of successes by way of the 1950s and was joined by a low and fashionable cabriolet. Styling for this vehicle was contracted to the Italian designer Giovanni Michelotti. Beneath the glassfibre physique was a extremely stiff chassis primarily based on a central tubular backbone which was to be the hallmark of all Alpines built.

Alpine A110 Berlinette (1962-1967).

Alpine then took the Michelotti cabriolet style and created a 2+two closed coupe (or ‘berlinette’) physique for it: this became the Alpine A108, now featuring the Dauphine Gordini 845 cc engine, which on later models was bored out to give a capacity of 904 cc or (subsequently) 998 cc.[1] The A108 was constructed amongst 1958 and 1963.


In 1962, the A108 begun to be made also in Brazil, by Willys-Overland. It was the Willys Interlagos (berlineta, coupé and convertible).

Willys Interlagos Berlineta, the Brazilian A108
By now the car’s mechanicals have been beginning to show their age in Europe. Alpine were already operating closely with Renault and when the Renault R8 saloon was introduced in 1962. Alpine redeveloped their chassis and made a number of minor body changes to enable the use of R8 mechanicals.

This new car was the A110 Berlinette Tour de France, named after a profitable run with the Alpine A108 in the 1962 occasion. Starting with a 956 cc engine of 51 bhp (38 kW), the identical chassis and physique developed with reasonably minor alterations more than the years to the stage where, by 1974, the small car was handling 1800 cc engines creating 180 bhp (134 kW)+. With a competition weight for the car of about 620 kg (1,367 lb), the functionality was superb.

Alpine accomplished rising good results in rallying, and by 1968 had been allocated the complete Renault competitors price range. The close collaboration permitted Alpines to be sold and maintained in France by typical Renault dealerships. Real best level success started in 1968 with outright wins in the Coupe des Alpes and other international events. By this time the competition vehicles have been fitted with 1440 cc engines derived from the Renault R8 Gordini. Competitors successes became quite a few, helped considering that Alpine were the 1st business totally to exploit the competitors components homologation rules.


In 1971, Alpine accomplished a 1-2-three finish in the Monte Carlo rally, employing cars with engines derived from the Renault 16. In 1973, they repeated the 1-2-3 Monte Carlo outcome and went on to win the Globe Rally Championship outright, beating Porsche, Lancia and Ford. Throughout all of this time, production of the Alpine A110 increased and manufacturing offers had been struck for A110s and A108s with factories in a number of other nations which includes Spain, Mexico, Brazil and Bulgaria.
1973 brought the international petrol crisis, which had profound effects on numerous specialist car makers worldwide. From a total Alpine production of 1421 in 1972, the numbers of cars sold dropped to 957 in 1974 and the firm was bailed out by means of a takeover by Renault. Alpine’s problems had been compounded by the want for them to develop a replacement for the A110 and launch the vehicle just when European petrol prices leapt via the roof.

Alpine A110 Berlinette Group 4 (1971-1974).

Through the 1970s, Alpine continued to campaign the A110, and later the Alpine A310 replacement automobile. However, to compete with Alpine’s achievement, other makers created increasingly specific cars, notably the Lancia Stratos which was based closely on the A110’s size and rear-engined idea, though incorporating a Ferrari engine. Alpine’s own automobiles, nevertheless based on the 1962 design and making use of a surprising quantity of production parts, became increasingly uncompetitive. In 1974 Alpine constructed a series of factory racing Renault 17 Gordinis (a single driven by Jean-Luc Thérier) that won the Press on Regardless World Rally Championship round in Michigan, USA.

In reality, having achieved the rally championship, and with Renault funds now fully behind them, Alpine had set their sights on a new target. The subsequent aim was to win at Le Mans. Renault had also taken more than the Gordini tuning firm and merged the two to type Renault Sport. A quantity of increasingly productive sports racing automobiles appeared, culminating in the 1978 Le Mans win with the Renault Alpine A442B. This was fitted with a turbo-charged engine Alpine had been the 1st firm to run in and win an international rally with a turbo automobile as far back as 1972 when Jean-Luc Thérier took a specially modified A110 to victory on the Critérium des Cévennes.

Alpine Renault continued to develop their variety of models all by means of the 1980s. The A310 was the next modern interpretation of the A110. The Alpine A310 was a sports auto with a rear-mounted engine and was initially powered by a four-cylinder 1.6 L sourced Renault 17 TS/Gordini engine. In 1976 the A310 was restyled by Robert Opron and fitted with the a lot more effective and newly developed V6 PRV engine. The 2.six L motor was modified by Alpine with a 4-speed manual gearbox. Later they would use a 5-speed manual gearbox and with the group four model get a greater tune with a lot more cubic capacity and 3 twin barrel Weber carburetors.

Alpine A310 V6 GT Pack (1983-1984).

Following the A310 Alpine transformed into the new Alpine GTA range made from plastic and polyester elements, commencing with normally aspirated PRV V6 engines. In 1985 the V6 Turbo was introduced to total the variety. This automobile was faster and much more strong than the normally aspirated version. In 1986 polyester components were cut for the initial time by robot employing a high pressure (3500 bar) water jet, .15 mm (.01 in) in diameter at three instances the speed of sound. In the exact same year the American specification V6 Turbo was created.

In 1987 fitment of anti-pollution systems allowed the V6 Turbo to be distributed to Switzerland, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands. 1989 saw the launch of the restricted edition GTA Mille Miles to celebrate Alpine’s 35th anniversary. Production was limited to 100 cars, all fitted with ABS braking, polished wheels, unique leather interior and paintwork. This version was not accessible in RHD.


1990 saw the launch of the specific edition wide bodied GTA Le Mans. The car wore polyester wheel arch extensions with a one piece front. Wheels had been 3 piece BBS style produced by ACT, 8×16&quot front &amp 10×17&quot rear. Otherwise identical mechanically to the V6 Turbo, the engine was fitted with a catalytic converter and energy was reduced to 185 bhp (138 kW). This model was obtainable in the UK and RHD versions carried a numbered plaque on the dashboard. The Le Mans is the most collectable and beneficial GTA derivative, since only 325 have been made (299 LHD and 26 RHD). These have been obtainable from Renault dealers in the UK and the country’s motoring press are belatedly recognising the GTA series as the ‘great unsung supercar of the 1980s’

Alpine V6 Turbo Le Mans 1990

The Alpine A610 was launched in 1991. It was re-styled inside and out but was nevertheless recognisable as a GTA derivative. The chassis structure was extensively reworked but the central box principal remained the identical. The front was entirely re-developed the interior was also significantly improved. Air-conditioning and energy steering were fitted as common. The total production run for A610s derivatives was 818 vehicles 67 RHD and 751 LHD. Soon after production of the A610 ended, the Alpine factory in Dieppe produced the Renault Sport Spider and a new era was to begin.
The final Alpine, an A610, rolled off the Dieppe line at 7. April 1995, Renault abandoning the Alpine name. This was constantly a issue in the UK industry. Alpines could not be sold in the UK beneath their own name due to the fact Sunbeam owned the trade mark (due to the fact of the mid-50s Sunbeam Alpine Mk I). In the 1970s, for example Dieppe have been building modified Renault R5s for the planet wide market. The rest of the planet knew them as R5 Alpines but in the UK they had to be renamed to R5 Gordini. Strangely enough with the quite a few organization takeovers that have occurred, it is another French organization, PSA (Peugot/Talbot/Citroën) who now own the British Alpine trademark.

The Alpine factory in Dieppe continues to expand in the 1980s they constructed the particular R5 Turbo vehicles, following the rear engined formula they have usually employed. They constructed all Clio Williams and RenaultSport Spiders. The factory proudly put its Alpine badges on the constructed early batches of the mid engined Clio series one particular Clio V6. The Clio Series two was also assembled there with far more recent RenaultSport Clio 172 and RenaultSport Clio 182s.
Between 1989 and 1995, a new Alpine named the A710 &quotBerlinette two&quot, was designed and two prototypes were constructed. Due to the expense of the project (600 millions Francs), and as adding modern equipment and interior would compromise the value and performances, the project was canceled.


The Dieppe factory is identified as the producer of RenaultSport models that are sold worldwide. This was originally the &quotAlpine&quot factory that Renault gained when they acquired the brand in 1973. Some of the Renault Sport models produced in Dieppe are presently the Mégane Renault Sport, Clio Renault Sport and the new Mégane Renault Sport dCi is to be constructed on Renault’s Dieppe assembly line. All the RenaultSport track-, tarmac- and gravel-racing Meganes and Clios are also created in the Dieppe factory.

In October 2007, it has been reported that Renault’s marketing boss Patrick Blain has revealed that there are plans for a number of sports cars in Renault’s future lineup, but stressed that the first model will not arrive till following 2010. Blain confirmed that Renault is unlikely to pick a new name for its future sports auto and will most likely go with Alpine to brand it. Blain described it as getting a “radical sports car” and not just a sports version of a standard model.

The new Alpine sports auto will most likely have a version of the Nissan GT-R’s Premium Midship platform.

The presence of sportier models in the Renault line-up would give the French automaker a far better chance to capitalize on its Formula A single prowess, obtaining won two back-to-back globe championships with Fernando Alonso, translating these efforts to its production automobiles is a moot point simply because Renault’s lineup is lacking in the sports automobile department. Management is hoping to alter all that and is keen to start developing sports cars again, as it has in the previous, with the revival of the legendary Alpine label.

In France there is a massive network of Alpine enthusiasts clubs. Clubs exist in several countries which includes the UK, USA, Australia, Japan.

In February 2009, Renault confirmed that plans to revive the Alpine brand have been frozen as a direct result of the 2008-2009 worldwide financial crisis and recession.

In May possibly 2012, photos of a new Renault Alpine idea titled as Renault Alpine A110-50[six] had been leaked prior to its debut in Monaco.

According to a Spanish automobile magazine it is said that the road version will be released in 2013.[citation needed]

In November 2012, Renault and Caterham announced plans to create reasonably priced race automobiles under the Alpine brand which are to be accessible in 2016.[8] In this partnership, Caterham will obtain 50% ownership of Alpine while the new cars will be developed at Renault’s Dieppe, France assembly plant.

(Post from rapid prototyping companies in china blog)

Cool Stainless Steel Prototypes Factory pictures

Some cool stainless steel prototypes factory images:

De Lorean
stainless steel prototypes factory
Image by clarksworth
I almost certainly must have rubbed the tyres clean.

This automobile, the very first RHD prototype the company created, is fairly special, even going by how uncommon the correct handers typically are. The VIN plate suggests it is an really early vehicle (#510, with the automobiles beginning at #500), and the underbody as effectively as a variety of other details recommend this is truly Pilot Vehicle #10. To place that into some kind of context, first there were the 2 1977/78 prototype vehicles and then there had been 25 pilot vehicles, which were the new shape, with the new mechanicals – so, primarily a run of prototypes ahead of building the eight,500 production automobiles.

This pilot vehicle was kept by the factory and then sent to a business on the UK Mainland named Wooler Holdec to be converted to right hand drive as a tester for releasing a UK certain model DeLorean. This vehicle was then returned to the factory, and, going by the components it had when it came into the current owner’s possession, was stripped down at least as soon as to offer components for other production automobiles.

Right after the factory went into receivership in 1982, cars had been hand assembled by a skeleton crew to make as a lot funds for the receivers as possible till early 1984. This car was in the batch of the last 12 cars that were auctioned off, now making use of modern production components (the car is a mix of early and late DMC components).

So this automobile was there at the quite commence, and at the really finish. And that’s quite cool.

A short history on the RHD vehicles can be located on the De Lorean wiki web page, which truly mentions this specific vehicle.

First foray into employing Aperture 2 specifically the Black Point and Definition controls as well as bringing out the red of the toolbox and floor markings. I did some recovery on the blown out windows as effectively as a bit of a colour temp adjust (warmer, to combat the fluorescents). Of all my De Lorean photos, I consider this one ranks as a favourite.

65 Ford Mustang GT Retractable Hardtop
stainless steel prototypes factory
Image by DVS1mn
Willmar Car Club 2014 Kandi Mall Show



This post initially appeared in the October, 2005 concern of Hemmings Classic Auto.

There exist no new tips.
Whatever variation of synapse connections you’ve managed to form in a strategy new to you has virtually certainly taken spot in the minds of males years, generations, or centuries before. No offense, that is just what happens when billions of people inhabit 1 planet over several millennia. Watch a television show or listen to a song on the radio and you’ll swear you have observed that plot or heard that lyric before.
Another prime example–convertible hardtops.
The Lexus SC430 delivers both the safety and comfort of a hardtop over your head and the thrill of open-best motoring, as it has given that 2000. But the Mercedes-Benz SLK supplied the identical selection back in 1996. The Mitsubishi 3000GT introduced the bodystyle two years prior.
Automakers on this side of the pond have only brought retractables back to showrooms not too long ago, with the look of the Pontiac G6 for the 2006 model year, the Cadillac XLR in 2003 and the Chevrolet SSR about the same time.
Pie-in-the-sky dream cars have utilised the function as a gimmick for years. Benjamin B. Ellerbeck, of Salt Lake City, Utah, patented a retractable metal roof in 1922, then fitted it to a 1919 Hudson, but he could not find a manufacturer to bring his dream to life. Coachbuilders and infinitesimal-run versions of production automobiles have employed it as far back as 1933, on the Hotchkiss Eclipse by Pourtout.
Correct about in the middle of it all came Ben J. Smith and his need to see a retractable hardtop fitted to a Ford Mustang.
Smith, 82, can be likened to a latter-day Ellerbeck, if only in their tenacity in pursuing this widespread concept. Ellerbeck, after creating his Hudson, pursued a a single-man publicity campaign for the concept in the automotive journals of the day. He tried unsuccessfully to attract Packard as a builder and claimed he took several orders, but Ellerbeck’s notion seemed not to earn him considerably fame nor money as he continued his publicity march by means of the 1930s.
Smith, nonetheless, stood a greater opportunity for good results. A Detroit native, he went to Ford where he started as a wood pattern maker in 1940. He stated he remained on deferment until an acquaintance reported him to the draft board, so rather than face Uncle Sam’s wrath, he enlisted in the Navy in 1944 for 17 months. Smith returned to Ford for its Light Ford system then, in 1949, moved to Nash and later took a job with General Motors’ Fisher Physique Division, engineering hardtops and convertibles.
In about the exact same time span, Ford Advanced Studio designer Gil Spear penned the retractable hardtop thought. Whether he knew of Ellerbeck’s efforts has by no means been pointed out, but his concept resembled Ellerbeck’s–a hardtop that simply slid down more than the trunk lid. Nothing to stow away, no complex mechanisms. (Dick Teague, the legendary AMC stylist, penned a tiny retractable in 1946 for Kaiser-Frazer that also employed the identical standard principle, although the concept in no way progressed beyond paper.)
Spear’s 1st drawing emerged in October 1948, according to Jim and Cheryl Farrell’s book, Ford Design and style Department Concepts and Showcars, 1932-1961. But the notion did not re-emerge till it appeared on Ford’s 1953 Syrtis show auto. By then, Spear had refined the concept to drop the hardtop beneath the trunk lid. The Syrtis ultimately met the enterprise end of a sledgehammer several instances, but Spear had convinced William Clay Ford, Ford’s common manager of Special Goods Operations, that the Continental Mark II project–which got the go-ahead in 1953–had to contain a retractable hardtop.
Harley Copp, the chief engineer for the Mark II project, brought his brother-in-law, John Hollowell, into the project. Hollowell, who worked with Ben Smith on the Light Ford project, in turn hired Smith away from GM. With a spending budget of .19 million and 18 months, Hollowell and Smith finished MP#5, a Mark II mule fitted with a totally operational powered convertible hardtop. The vehicle generated wonderful applause, but the project’s leaders sacked the concept when they realized that Ford could only create the Mark II in one particular bodystyle.
To recoup the investment, Ford had Smith integrate the concept into the 1957 Ford, hoping the extra million invested in modifying the Fairlane physique and in tooling would amortize over an anticipated larger run. The Ford retractable hardtop, introduced in mid-1957, and known as the Skyliner in 1958-59, utilised essentially the same method developed for the Mark II. Smith had to extend the Fairlane’s rear sheetmetal by three inches, shorten the hardtop three.75 inches and relocate the gas tank, but he finished the design and style perform correct at the December 1956 deadline.
Ford sold almost 48,400 Skyliners over the car’s three-year run–good enough to give Ford bragging rights as the initial to mass-produce such a design and style. But the sales didn’t justify the investment, so GM and Chrysler decided not to compete.
Smith, though, never forgot the idea. Maybe since he drove MP#5 on the streets of Detroit for two years, until he came back from vacation to discover it scrapped. Possibly since he later read about the Peugeot Eclipses of the 1930s. Whatever inspiration he took, it lay dormant in his mind for the far better part of a decade.
From 1959 to 1964, Smith served as chief engineer for Ford of Argentina. In 1964, he became executive engineer for Ford’s Commonwealth zones, and a year later William Clay Ford tapped him to head up sophisticated package engineering in Detroit.
By this time, the Mustang had grow to be Ford’s darling. Demand continually outstripped production, and its first-year sales broke the record set just a couple of years earlier by the Falcon. Ford product planners genuinely had just the two models to supply to begin with, so they scrambled for far more.
&quotWe had worked up such a head of steam on the 1st Mustang that we have been already hunting for variations on the theme,&quot Gene Bordinat, Ford’s styling chief at the time, said in Gary Witzenburg’s Mustang: The Complete History of America’s Pioneer Ponycar.
For that cause, Bordinat’s Mustang styling group whipped up the fastback bodystyle and Lee Iacocca approved it the minute he saw it. Though designers played about with prototype removable hardtops and rejected the idea just before the Mustang’s April 1964 introduction, a dealer-installed folding sunroof made the possibilities list and some dealers at the time supplied aftermarket removable hardtops for the convertibles.
So what greater time to pitch a convertible hardtop for the Mustang?
Rather than reprise the Mark II/Skyliner design and style, Smith had a simpler concept. Alternatively of adding the 13 switches, 10 solenoids, nine circuit breakers, five motors and 610 feet of wire that powered the Skyliner’s retractable top, Smith wanted the Mustang’s prime fully manual. And instead of dropping the roof as a single piece into the trunk–anything the 1957 Fairlane’s styling permitted–Smith developed a clamshell-style roof that worked better with the Mustang’s long-hood, quick-deck styling.
To the greatest of our analysis, clamshell design appeared just twice prior–on the 1948 Playboy and on a car made by J.R.V. Dolphin of Buckingham, England, the very same year. We’ve identified small additional info about Dolphin’s design, other than that it was installed on an Allard chassis, and the Playboy, of which 97 total had been created, used the top section as a rigid boot straight behind the seat. Smith’s style, even so, placed the complete best below the trunklid, leaving the rear seat open for passengers.
Smith in fact started operating on his notion in mid-1965. He had a discretionary price range of about ,000 and said he spent among ,000 and ,000 establishing a retractable hardtop for the Mustang with the help of his assistant, Roy Butler, who followed Smith to Ford from GM, and of Ford designer Dick Papps. Just before extended, he decided to approach upper management with the project.
&quotWe finally got authority (from Ford) for 5,000, but it could have been a quarter-million dollars, I just don’t don’t forget,&quot Smith stated. &quotSo I let a develop contract out to John Hollowell. He left Ford and started his personal engineering company (in 1962), so he did some manufacturing himself.
&quotI ordered a 1965 coupe particular off the production line–it had all the bells and whistles and the greatest engine you could get at the time. I place double torque boxes in the front and added on to the rocker panel to strengthen the chassis for when we cut the roof off. Something I created for that was an add-on weld. I could put the front proper wheel on a curb and the back left wheel on a block and open the doors without losing any structural integrity.
&quotI improved the length of the car about two and a half inches, just in the rear overhang, so I could match the roof in the trunk,&quot Smith said. &quotThe wheelbase stayed the same I just extended the sheetmetal back. Nicely, that necessary new taillamps and a new rear bumper. And the decklid, I had to turn it around, so it could open from the front. Yes, the decklid styling came from my Lincoln styling days, but we also required the space in there to stow the best when it was down.&quot
In addition, the gas tank and filler moved behind the rear seat, just as it had on MP#five. Smith even envisioned four additional tops for the project: one of brushed aluminum, one particular of stainless steel, a single vinyl-covered fiberglass prime and one stamped-steel best. He stated Hollowell could only fabricate the latter two, but even those remained on the sidelines, not a portion of the car’s overall presentation.
&quotThe whole project was a quickie,&quot Smith stated. &quotFrom idea, we had the auto built in seven months. It was completed in the spring of 1966. We did not have to get any staff engineering approval, so that cut by way of all the red tape.&quot
Smith mentioned he does not don’t forget no matter whether Iacocca saw the automobile, but he did present it to Henry Ford II and Don Petersen, then head of solution arranging. &quotWe by no means showed the auto in public, but I keep in mind we did take it to Cincinnati to do some marketplace investigation next to then-existing convertibles,&quot Smith stated. &quotIt had raving critiques. Men and women stated they’d rather have it than a convertible, and no one mentioned something about it not being mechanized.
&quotSo it was all prepared to go, but Petersen, he wanted it mechanized, and he knew we could do it, so he went out and took one more study. He asked, ‘Do you want it manual or mechanized?’ Anything like 92 percent of the individuals mentioned mechanized. Well, that was cheating –you know what the answer to that question’s going to be. I don’t even know if that item preparing displaying even took place.&quot
Nonetheless, Ford assigned Smith with the activity of mechanizing the retractable Mustang.
&quotI created the leading counterbalanced, so it wasn’t needed to power it,&quot Smith said. &quotIt was so simple to do it. The maximum lifting weight was around 10 pounds. I had my 5-foot-two secretary come out to operate it, and she had no issue putting it up and down.&quot
Smith and Butler took another 4 months to design and style a energy-operated top, but at the finish, told upper management Ford couldn’t reasonably add the energy mechanisms to the retractable hardtop.
Smith stated he sent off some strongly worded letters to Petersen and his item planning men and women, to Bob McNamara and to several others in Ford management, telling them the company was headed in the incorrect direction by axing his project. That one prototype remained, although, so Smith drove it about Dearborn for several months as a individual vehicle.
&quotI bear in mind the back seats folded down, so I could use the deck compartment for hauling luggage,&quot Smith said. &quotI as soon as loaded a good amount of lumber back there as well.&quot
But as with the Mark II mule, Smith returned from a vacation in late fall of 1966 to locate the Mustang gone. Smith mentioned he in no way saw the scrap order for the retractable Mustang.
&quotWhen I saw that it was gone, I went into styling, where they let me see the paperwork for scrapping cars,&quot Smith mentioned. &quotThey told me, ‘Ben, you do not want to follow that one.’ So I’m certain it went to some higher-up.&quot
Rumors also persist about that original retractable. Smith stated he heard as soon as that somebody had spotted a retractable Mustang in Oklahoma City, but he by no means could confirm that. Another rumor locations the automobile in the basement of Ford globe headquarters.
Shortly after, Smith went to Ford of Brazil as item director. Then in February of 1968, he decided to take a leave of absence–essentially an early retirement–from Ford, on the condition that he wouldn’t function for GM or Chrysler.
But he never forgot that retractable Mustang. Nor did his kids. Smith’s son, David, stated he nevertheless has a framed photograph of himself as a boy standing next to that prototype. Sometime in the late 1980s, Smith wrote an write-up about the Mustang for the Skyliner club’s book on retractables, which spurred some interest in the vehicle.
&quotFor years, my children asked why I did not do another one particular,&quot Smith mentioned. &quotSo I started to do it as a lark.&quot
In September or October of 1993, even though living in Arizona, Ben Smith purchased a utilized 1966 Mustang coupe. At about the very same time, David Smith, living in Connecticut, bought a equivalent 1965 coupe. Ben traced the outline of the Mustang on his garage wall and sketched his tips for an additional retractable hardtop, following the original design, but keeping the car’s overall length, gas tank, filler location, taillamps, passenger interior and rear bumper intact.
He took cardboard templates down to a regional fiberglass shop and, by December 1993, had the very first sets of molds completed and ready for installation by Magnolia Auto Body in Santee, California. He reprised his torque boxes and chassis strengtheners from the original prototype.
&quotI didn’t use any drawings,&quot Ben said. &quotWe just produced a top, cut it in two, then did all the modeling of the roof panels and trunklid.&quot
David, who runs a body shop, stated Ben flew the molds to him in January of 1994, enabling him to finish the function on his 1965 in his own shop.
&quotWe wanted to use the tops Dad produced for the original,&quot David stated. &quotSo we called up the manufacturer that constructed these tops, thinking they kept them stashed in the rafters, but they have been gone.
&quotBy April 10, we had developed the hardtop, produced it, and put it on two automobiles. The 1966, we called Prototype One, it was red with a buckskin interior and a beige prime. We showed that one particular at Knott’s Berry Farm in California the weekend of the 13th. The 1965 was Prototype Two, it was powder blue with a blue prime. We showed it at the national Mustang show in Charlotte, North Carolina, the very same weekend.&quot
At the Charlotte show, David met Ron Bramlett, the owner of Mustangs Plus in Stockton, California. That meeting led not only to Mustangs Plus’s chassis strengthening kit, employing all the pieces created by Ben and manufactured by David, but also to Mustangs Plus retailing a retractable Mustang kit. Mustangs Plus constructed one of the earliest of the kits and continues to use that automobile in their promotions these days.
A third prototype followed–this one particular in gunmetal gray–constructed for Ben’s other son, Ben A. Smith. Around the exact same time, Ben decided to form a limited partnership, Retractables Limitless, to create and help with the installation of retractable hardtop kits. Ben said the effort lasted about two years, with total production of amongst 35 and 50 kits, all signed and numbered. David constructed about eight to ten of the kits in his shop, Coastal Collision of New London, Connecticut, and sold them as comprehensive cars. His father never sold any complete automobiles, and Ben A. Smith sold two full automobiles, which includes Prototype 3.
Whatever the number, Ben said he in no way produced any funds on the venture just because he did not have the time to devote to advertising. He purchased out his investors, dissolved the partnership and shipped his whole inventory to David.
Like a lot of people who first encounter the Mustangs, Rae Johnston, of Goshen, Indiana, had never heard of the retractable hardtop. But even though in Phoenix about seven years ago on a company trip, he met Ben Smith and got to see and obtain No. eight, our driveReport car, painted maroon with a white top, just like his 19641Ú2 convertible.
&quotI liked the uniqueness of it,&quot Johnston stated. &quotSure, it is not automatic, but it’s nonetheless one-tenth of the work of a standard convertible. It has torsion bars, so when you choose it up, it goes back and forth without any effort.
&quotThis one came with factory air conditioning and the two-barrel, single-exhaust 289, so my wife likes it, although I generally like vehicles with a small far more zip. But because of the frame rails (chassis strengthening kit), the retractable handles far better than a standard Mustang.&quot
Ben Smith stated he likes seeing the number of modern day cars adopting the retractable hardtop notion–it really is a sort of vindication for him. In fact, he claims he sketched a clamshell-kind convertible hardtop for the chief engineer of Mercedes more than dinner four years just before the introduction of the SLK. However, he wonders how numerous modern day interpretations will truly final.
On hearing news that an aftermarket firm is contemplating building a retractable hardtop for the new, retro-styled Mustang, Smith stated he believes it really is doable.
&quotI know this is a push-button age, but I will disagree with any complexity,&quot he said. &quotIt could be extremely effortless, like mine was, and I feel anything very easy would turn into a classic.&quot

DeLorean (once more) RHD (again)
stainless steel prototypes factory
Image by clarksworth
An additional a single of the right hand drive, euro-spec &quotprototype&quot vehicles. Slightly faster than the american automobiles, getting devoid of the energy-strangling emissions controls, and sitting on proper, decrease euro suspension, rather than the almost 4×4-esque US security hight springs, these vehicles are almost certainly the most desirable of all DeLoreans.

If I’m remembering my DeLorean Information (TM) properly, this is one of three vehicles (AXI 1697-1699) that have been converted by the factory in Dunmurry, NI, rather than the rest that had been converted by Wooler-Holdec more than right here in the UK for testing/prototyping. This certain car is the only auto of the 3, generating it fundamentally the only 1 of it’s sort in the world (I know, woo). It could have been JZD’s private vehicle when he was in NI – I know one of the 3 was.

These cars would have gone on sale late 83 or early 84 had the organization not gone beneath. They were making very good, strong cars at that point and these enhanced models miiight just have been enough to save the firm (but almost certainly not).

Formerly of the Chris Parnham collection, no thought whose it is now.

(Post from rapid prototyping companies in china blog)

Cool China Nickel Machined Portion Factory images

Some cool china nickel machined component factory photos:

A Bitcoin You Can Flip
china nickel machined part factory
Image by jurvetson
My son has become fascinated with bitcoins, and so I had to get him a tangible a single for Xmas (thanks Sim1!). The public essential is imprinted visibly on the tamper-evident holographic film, and the private important lies underneath.

I as well was fascinated by digital cash back in college, and far more specifically by the asymmetric mathematical transforms underlying public-crucial crypto and digital blind signatures.

I remembered a technical paper I wrote, but could not discover it. A desktop search revealed an essay that I completely forgot, anything that I had recovered from my archives of floppy discs (whilst I nonetheless could).

It is an article I wrote for the college newspaper in 1994. Ironically, Microsoft Word could not open this ancient Microsoft Word file format, but the totally free text editors could.

What a enjoyable time capsule, under, with some decision naivetés…

I am attempting to reconstruct what I was considering, and asking yourself if it makes any sense. I think I was arguing that a bulletproof framework for digital money (and what much better testing ground) could be utilized to secure a digital container for executable code on a rental basis. So the expression of an idea — the certain code, or runtime service — is locked in a secure container. The idea would be to prevent copying rather of punishing soon after the truth. Micro-currency and micro-code look like equivalent exercises in regulating the single use of an issued number.

Now that the Bitcoin experiment is underway, do you know of anybody writing about it as an alternative framework for intellectual house?

IP and Digital Money
Digital Cash and the “Intellectual Property” Oxymoron
By Steve Jurvetson

A lot of of us will quickly be working in the information solutions or technologies industries which are at present tangled in a bramble patch of intellectual house law. As the law struggles to discover coherency and an internally-constant logic for intellectual home (IP) protection, digital encryption technologies may offer a much better resolution — from the viewpoint of minimizing litigation, exploiting the inherent rewards of an info-based company model, and preserving a totally free economy of suggestions.
Bullet-proof digital money technology, which is now emerging, can provide a protected “cryptographic container” for intellectual expressions, thereby preserving traditional notions of intellectual house that safeguard specific instantiations of an idea rather than the idea itself. For instance, it seems affordable that Intuit should be able to shield against the widespread duplication of their Quicken software (the expression of an concept), but they ought to not be able to patent the underlying thought of single-entry bookkeeping. There are strong financial incentives for digital money to create and for those techniques to be adapted for IP protection — to generate a protected container or expression of an concept. The speedy march of information technologies has strained the evolution of IP law, but rather than patching the law, info technologies itself might give a far more coherent answer.

Info Wants To Be Cost-free
At present, IP law is enigmatic because it is expanding to a domain for which it was not initially intended. In establishing the U.S. Constitution, Thomas Jefferson argued that ideas must freely transverse the globe, and that ideas have been fundamentally diverse from material goods. He concluded that “Inventions then cannot, in nature, be a subject of home.” The troubles surrounding IP come into sharp focus as we shift to getting more of an info-primarily based economy.
The use of e-mail and nearby Television footage aids disseminate information around the globe and can be a force for democracy — as seen in the Television footage from Chechen, the use of modems in Prague for the duration of the Velvet Revolution, and the e-mail and Tv from Tianammen Square. Even Gorbachev utilized a video camera to show what was happening after he was kidnapped. What seems to be an inherent force for democracy runs into problems when it becomes the topic of home.
As larger-level programming languages turn out to be a lot more like natural languages, it will become increasingly tough to distinguish the concept from the code. Language precedes thought, as Jean-Louis Gassée is fond of saying, and our language is the framework for the formulation and expression of our tips. Restricting application will increasingly be indistinguishable from restricting freedom of speech.
An economy of suggestions and human attention depends on the continuous and free exchange of ideas. Due to the fact of the associative nature of memory processes, no thought is detached from others. This begs the query, is intellectual house an oxymoron?

Intellectual Home Law is a Patch
John Perry Barlow, former Grateful Dead lyricist and co-founder (with Mitch Kapor) of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, argues that “Intellectual property law can’t be patched, retrofitted or expanded to include digitized expression… Faith in law will not be an successful strategy for high-tech businesses. Law adapts by continuous increments and at a pace second only to geology. Technologies advances in lunging jerks. True-globe conditions will continue to change at a blinding pace, and the law will lag further behind, a lot more profoundly confused. This mismatch may prove not possible to overcome.”
From its origins in the Industrial Revolution where the invention of tools took on a new value, patent and copyright law has protected the physical conveyance of an notion, and not the idea itself. The physical expression is like a container for an concept. But with the emerging information superhighway, the “container” is becoming a lot more ethereal, and it is disappearing altogether. Whether or not it is e-mail nowadays, or the future goods of the Info Age, the “expressions” of suggestions will be voltage conditions darting about the net, extremely a lot like thoughts. The fleeting copy of an image in RAM is not extremely diverse that the fleeting image on the retina.
The digitization of all forms of information — from books to songs to images to multimedia — detaches info from the physical plane where IP law has usually found definition and precedent. Patents can not be granted for abstract tips or algorithms, however courts have not too long ago upheld the patentability of application as lengthy as it is operating a physical machine or causing a physical result. Copyright law is even much more of a patch. The U.S. Copyright Act of 1976 needs that operates be fixed in a durable medium, and where an concept and its expression are inseparable, the merger doctrine dictates that the expression can’t be copyrighted. E-mail is not currently copyrightable due to the fact it is not a reduction to tangible type. So of course, there is a proposal to amend these copyright provisions. In current rulings, Lotus won its case that Borland’s Quattro Pro spreadsheet copied components of Lotus 123’s appear and really feel, however Apple lost a similar case versus Microsoft and HP. As Professor Bagley points out in her new text, “It is tough to reconcile beneath the total idea and feel test the results in the Apple and Lotus situations.” Provided the inconsistencies and financial significance of these troubles, it is no surprise that swarms of lawyers are studying to practice in the IP arena.
Back in the early days of Microsoft, Bill Gates wrote an inflammatory “Open Letter to Hobbyists” in which he alleged that “most of you steal your software … and need to be kicked out of any club meeting you show up at.” He presented the financial argument that piracy prevents suitable profit streams and “prevents great application from being written.” Now we have Windows.
But seriously, if we continue to believe that the value of details is primarily based on scarcity, as it is with physical objects, we will continue to patch laws that are contrary to the nature of details, which in several circumstances increases in worth with distribution. Little, fast moving firms (like Netscape and Id) safeguard their suggestions by obtaining to the marketplace quicker than their larger competitors who base their protection on fear and litigation.
The patent workplace is woefully understaffed and unable to judge the nuances of application. Comptons was initially granted a patent that covered practically all multimedia technologies. When they attempted to collect royalties, Microsoft pushed the Patent Workplace to overturn the patent. In 1992, Software Advertising Corp received a patent for “displaying and integrating industrial ads with laptop software program.” That is like patenting the notion of a radio commercial. In 1993, a DEC engineer received a patent on just two lines of machine code generally used in object-oriented programming. CompuServe announced this month that they strategy to gather royalties on the broadly used GIF file format for images.
The Patent Workplace has issued effectively over 12,000 software program patents, and a programmer can unknowingly be in violation of any them. Microsoft had to spend 0MM to STAC in February 1994 for violating their patent on information compression. The penalties can be costly, but so can a patent search. Many of the software program patents don’t have the words “computer,” “software,” “program,” or “algorithm” in their abstracts. “Software patents turn each choice you make whilst writing a system into a legal danger,” says Richard Stallman, founder of the League for Programming Freedom. “They make writing a big plan like crossing a minefield. Every single step has a little possibility of stepping on a patent and blowing you up.” The really notion of seventeen years of patent protection in the rapidly moving application sector seems absurd. MS-DOS did not exist seventeen years ago.
IP law faces the additional wrinkle of jurisdictional problems. Where has an Net crime taken location? In the country or state in which the laptop server resides? Numerous nations do not have the exact same intellectual property laws as the U.S. Even within the U.S., the law can be challenging to enforce for example, a group of music publishers sued CompuServe for the digital distribution of copyrighted music. A complication is that CompuServe has no understanding of the activity because it happens in the flood of bits transferring in between its subscribers
The tension noticed in making digital copies revolves about the concern of house. But as opposed to the theft of material goods, copying does not deprive the owner of their possessions. With digital piracy, it is significantly less a clear ethical concern of theft, and far more an abstract notion that you are undermining the business model of an artist or software program developer. The distinction among ethics and laws typically revolves around their enforceability. Prior to copy machines, it was tough to make a book, and so it was obvious and visible if somebody was copying your function. In the digital age, copying is lightning fast and hard to detect. Given ethical ambiguity, convenience, and anonymity, it is no wonder we see a cultural shift with regard to digital ethics.

Piracy, Plagiarism and Pilfering
We copy music. We are seldom diligent with our footnotes. We wonder exactly where we’ve seen Strat-man’s PIE and the four slices before. We forward e-mail that may contain text from a copyrighted news publication. The SCBA estimates that 51% of satellite dishes have illegal descramblers. John Perry Barlow estimates that 90% of individual tough drives have some pirated computer software on them.
Or as final month’s Red Herring editorial points out, “this atmosphere of electronic piracy appears to have in turn spawned a freer attitude than ever toward great old-fashioned plagiarism.” Articles from significant publications and WSJ columns appear and circulate extensively on the Net. Laptop Photos magazine replicated a complete article on multimedia databases from New Media magazine, and then publicly apologized.
Music and voice samples are an increasingly widespread art kind, from two Reside Crew to Negativland to regional bands like Voice Farm and Consolidated. Peter Gabriel embraces the shift to repositioned content material “Traditionally, the artist has been the final arbiter of his operate. He delivered it and it stood on its own. In the interactive globe, artists will also be the suppliers of details and collage material, which people can either accept as is, or manipulate to develop their personal art. It’s element of the shift from ability-primarily based function to selection-making and editing perform.”
But many traditionalists resist the modify. Museums are hesitant to embrace digital art simply because it is impossible to distinguish the original from a copy according to a curator at the New Museum of Modern Art, “The art planet is scared to death of this stuff.” The Digital Audio Tape debate also illustrated the paranoia the music business 1st insisted that these DAT recorders had to purposely introduce static into the digital copies they produced, and then they settled for an embedded code that limited the quantity of successive copies that could be created from the a master supply.
For a healthier reaction, appear at the phenomenally profitable organization models of Mosaic/Netscape and Id Computer software, the twisted creator of Doom. Just as McAfee constructed a organization on shareware, Netscape and Id encourage widespread totally free distribution of their item. But after you want support from Netscape, or the higher levels of the Doom game, then you have to spend. For industries with sturdy demand-side economies of scale, such as Netscape web browsers or Protected-TCL intelligent agents, the creators have exploited the economies of information distribution. Software items are especially susceptible to growing returns with scale, as are networking goods and most of the info technologies industries.
However, the Application Publishers Association reports that 1993 worldwide losses to piracy of business application software program totaled .45 billion. They also estimated that 89% of computer software units in Korea had been counterfeit. And China has 29 factories, some state-owned, that press 75 million pirated CDs per year, largely for export. GATT will impose the U.S. notions of intellectual home on a world that sees the concern extremely differently.
Clearly there are robust financial incentives to defend intellectual home, and affordable arguments can be created for application patents and digital copyright, but the complexities of legal enforcement will be outrun and potentially obviated by the relatively fast developments of yet another technologies, digital cash and cryptography.

Digital Money and the IP Lock
Digital money is in some methods an extreme instance of digital “property” — given that it can’t be copied, it is possessed by one entity at a time, and it is static and non-perishable. If the methods for guarding against pilferage and piracy function in the domain of money, then they can be employed to “protect” other properties by getting embedded in them. If I wanted to copy-defend an “original” operate of digital art, digital money strategies be employed as the “container” to protect intellectual house in the old style. A bullet-proof digital cash scheme would inevitably be adapted by these who stand to acquire from the existing technique. Such as Bill Gates.
Several businesses are developing technologies for electronic commerce. On January 12, many Higher-Tech Club members attended the Cybermania conference on electronic commerce with the CEOs of Intuit, CyberCash, Enter Tv and The Lightspan Partnership. According to Scott Cook, CEO of Intuit, the motivations for digital money are anonymity and efficient little-transaction World wide web commerce. Anonymity preserves our privacy in the age of increasingly intrusive “database marketing” primarily based on credit card buy patterns and other personal info. Of course, it also has tax-evasion implications. For World wide web commerce, money is much more effective and less difficult to use than a credit card for little transactions.
“A lot of men and women will spend nickels on the Web,” says Dan Lynch of CyberCash. Banks will quickly exchange your present cash for cyber-tokens, or a “bag of bits” which you can commit freely on the Web. A competitor based in the Netherlands referred to as DigiCash has a Net web page with several articles on electronic cash and completely functional demo of their technologies. You can get some cost-free money from them and devote it at some of their allied vendors.
Digital money is a compelling technology. Wired magazine calls it the “killer application for electronic networks which will adjust the international economy.” Handling and fraud costs for the paper income system are developing as digital color copiers and ATMs proliferate. Donald Gleason, President of the Wise Card Enterprise unit of Electronic Payment Services argues that “Cash is a nightmare. It charges income handlers in the U.S. alone around billion a year to move the stuff… Bills and coinage will increasingly be replaced by some sort of electronic equivalent.” Even a Citibank VP, Sholom Rosen, agrees that “There are going to be winners and losers, but everyone is going to play.”
The digital cash schemes use a blind digital signature and a central repository to protect against piracy and privacy violations. On the privacy problem, the techniques utilised have been mathematically proven to be protected against privacy violations. The bank cannot trace how the cash is getting used or who is utilizing it. Embedded in these schemes are effective digital cryptography strategies which have lately been spread in the commercial domain (RSA Information Safety is a leader in this field and will be speaking to the High Tech Club on January 19).
To protect against piracy calls for some extra work. As quickly as I have a digital bill on my Mac difficult drive, I will want to make a copy, and I can. (A lot of organizations have busted their picks trying to copy protect files from hackers. It will never ever function.). The difference is that I can only devote the bill after. The copy is worthless. This is attainable because every bill has a exclusive encrypted identifier. In spending the bill, my pc checks with the centralized repository which verifies that my specific bill is nevertheless unspent. Once I spend it, it can’t be spent once more. As with a lot of electronic transactions today, the security of the system depends on the integrity of a centralized pc, or what Dan Lynch calls “the big database in the sky.”
One of the most crucial limitations of the digital money methods is that they are tethered to a transaction among at least 3 parties — a buyer, seller and central repository. So, to use such a scheme to protect intellectual home, would demand networked computers and “live” files that have to dial up and check in with the repository to be operational. There are several compelling applications for this, such as voter registration, voting tabulation, and the registration of digital artwork originals.
When I asked Dan Lynch about the use of his technology for intellectual house protection, he agreed that the bits that now represent a bill could be employed for any quantity of items, from health-related records to photographs. A digital photograph could hide a digital signature in its low-order bits, and it would be imperceptible to the user. But these bits could be utilized with a registry of correct image owners, and could be employed to prove misappropriation or sampling of the image by others.
Technology author Steven Levy has been researching cryptography for Wired magazine, and he responded to my e-mail questions with the reply “You are on the right track in considering that crypto can preserve IP. I know of a number of attempts to forward plans to do so.” Digital cash may supply a “crypto-container” to preserve conventional notions of intellectual property.
The transaction tether limits the short-term applicability of these schemes for application copy protection. They will not perform on an isolated computer. This undoubtedly would slow its adoption for mobile computers because the wireless networking infrastructure is so nascent. But with Windows ’95 bundling network connectivity, quickly most computer systems will be network-ready — at least for the Microsoft network. And now that Bill Gates is acquiring Intuit, as an alternative of dollar bills, we will have Bill dollars.
The transaction tether is also a logistical headache with existing slow networks, which may hinder its adoption for mass-marketplace applications. For example, if a person forwards a copyrighted e-mail, the recipient might have to have their laptop do the repository verify just before they could see the text of the e-mail. E-mail is slow sufficient right now, but in the near future, these strategies of verifying IP permissions and paying proper royalties in digital cash could be background processes on a preemptive multitasking laptop (Windows ’95 or Mac OS Method eight). The digital money schemes are constant with other trends in software distribution and improvement — particularly computer software rental and object-oriented “applets” with nested royalty payments. They are also consistent with the document-centric vision of Open Doc and OLE.
The user of the future would start functioning on their stationary. When it is clear they are undertaking some text entry, the word processor would be downloaded and rented for its present usage. Digital pennies would trickle back to the people who wrote or inspired the numerous portions of the core plan. As you use other software applets, such as a spell-checker, it would be downloaded as required. By renting applets, or potentially finer-grained software program objects, the licensing royalties would be automatically tabulated and exchanged, and application piracy would demand heroic efforts. Intellectual house would turn into precisely that — home in a industry economy, beneath lock by its “creator,” and Bill Gates’ 1975 lament over application piracy may now be addressed 20 years later.

——–end of paper———–

On additional reflection, I need to have been considering of executable code (where the runtime requires a cloud connect to authenticate) and not passive media. Verification has been a discomfort, but perhaps it is seamless in a net-solutions future. Cloud apps and digital money depend on it, so why not the code itself.

I don’t see it as particularly useful for still photos (but it could verify the official owner of any exclusive bundle of pixels, in the sense that you can &quotown&quot a sufficiently massive number, but not the essence of a work of art or derivative works). Frankly, I’m not positive about non-interactive content in common, like pure video playback. &quotFixing&quot computer software IP alone would be a huge enough accomplishment.

(Post from rapid prototyping companies in china blog)

Nelson Factory Windsurfing Custom Boards No. 9

Some cool 3d prototype factory images:

Nelson Factory Windsurfing Custom Boards No. 9
3d prototype factory
Image by Windsurfing Screenshots
Nelson Factory Windsurfing Custom Boards No. 9

related internet site: www.squidoo.com/groups/windsurfing

Nelson Factory Windsurfing Custom Boards No. 7
3d prototype factory
Image by Windsurfing Screenshots
Custom Windsurfing Board Production Videos No. 7 ..watch movie..

(Post from rapid prototyping companies in china blog)

Good Prototype Factory In China images

A few good prototype factory in china photos I found:

IBM Expands Green Horizons Initiative Globally
prototype factory in china
Image by IBM Analysis
Dr. Jin Yan Shao showcases a prototype of a mobile and compact environmental unit, at the IBM Investigation lab in China. IBM is announcing that it will expand its Green Horizons initiative globally to enable city governments, utility businesses and factories to much better comprehend and boost their relationships with the environment and to help tackle pressing concerns related to air pollution and climate change (credit: IBM)

Stone Straw Constructing
prototype factory in china
Image by dbking
Marvin Chester Stone is very best known as the inventor of the modern day drinking straw. He was born in Portage County, Ohio in 1842. His father, Chester Stone, was a well-known inventor of many machines, which includes the cheese press and washing machines. Marvin C. Stone inherited his father’s inventive genius, and made several useful articles in his boyhood. He was a graduate of Oberlin College, but his course was interrupted by the Civil War, in which he took part with credit and won promotion.

Following college he started a theological course, but abandoned it to go to Washington where he was employed as a newspaper correspondent for many years. Later in his life, he invented a machine for making paper cigarette holders and created a contract with the Duke Organization. After that he began a factory in Ninth Street, Washington. Subsequent he invented a machine to wind paper straws, which were popularly used for drinking cold beverages.

Prior to this, men and women utilised natural rye grass straws, which were undesirable because they imparted a grassy flavor in beverages. In response to this, Marvin C. Stone made the very first drinking straw prototypes by spiraling a strip of paper about a pencil and gluing it at the ends. Subsequent he experimented with paraffin wax-coated manila paper, so that it would not get soggy when utilized. This very first model was 8 1/two inches lengthy and had a diameter just wide sufficient to avoid factors like lemon seeds from acquiring lodged in the tube. Marvin Stone patented his invention on January 3rd, 1888. By 1890, his factory was generating far more drinking straws than cigarette holders. In 1906 a machine was invented by Stone’s &quotStone Straw Corporation&quot to automatically wind the straws.

His next invention was a approach for color fine china in imitation of the celebrated &quotpeachblow vase&quot of the Walters collection.

Stone was spoken of as &quotthe pal of the operating class,&quot in that he looked soon after the moral and social condition of his working girls, and furnished a big library of common fiction and other functions, a music room, and meeting room for debates, and a dancing floor in the building. He was also effectively identified for his philanthropy in other places. He and a number of others constructed two blocks of tenement homes for African American residents of Washington.

Marvin Chester Stone died in his property in Columbia Road, Washington, D.C., on May possibly 17th, 1899 following a long illness. He was survived by a wife and a son, the former getting the daughter of the head of Platt &amp Co., of Baltimore.

Source: Wikipedia 2015

(Post from China rapid prototyping manufacturer blog)

Lastest Prototype Factory In China News

The Irish surf entrepreneur tearing up the rule book
He&#39s referring a lot more to the pace of life on the North Coast along with the significance of getting things appropriate with his item style despite the fact that with Skunkworks, his new surfboard business, items have undoubtedly been happening fast. The company has …
Study much more on Drift | Viewpoint(s) in surfing

Podcast: Namaste Technologies&#39 Kory Zelickson on what marijuana legalization
… you know, I purchased a 3D printer and we had been printing off components in the office right here to style it, and eventually took the prototype to China and worked with our factory there to develop it into a production level of model that we could appropriately …
Read far more on Financial Post

UK project to develop sodium-ion battery cells to shop excess electrical energy
To this end, WMG will employ the huge-scale prototype manufacturing and electrode coating facilities at its Energy Innovation Centre, in order to test out different chemistries and methods. “Improving the life cycle is partly about balancing the …
Study far more on The Engineer

(Post from China rapid prototyping manufacturer blog)

Lastest Prototype Factory In China News

South Africa Antitrust Body Makes it possible for Gupta-Zuma&#39s Optimum Buy
The bank expects to restart paying a dividend this year right after canceling the payout in the second half of 2015 to save funds, Benjamin Hung, regional CEO for Higher China and North Asia, mentioned at briefing with reporters in Hong Kong. Even though the bank didn …
Study much more on Bloomberg

Germany Posts Largest Price range Surplus Considering that Reunification: Chart
… mobile payments service. The platform will be rolled out in China subsequent month. …. There is a Harvard professor named David Keith who has a startup organization known as Carbon Engineering that is operating to develop a prototype plant. The cost per ton you …
Study a lot more on Bloomberg

(Post from China rapid prototyping manufacturer blog)