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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Kawanishi N1K2-Ja Shiden Kai “George”

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Kawanishi N1K2-Ja Shiden Kai “George”
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Image by Chris Devers
See much more photographs of this, and the Wikipedia post.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum: Steven F. Udvar-Hazy | Kawanishi N1K2-Ja Shiden (Violet Lightning) Kai (Modified) &quotGEORGE&quot:

GEORGE is the unlikely Allied nickname for the greatest Japanese naval fighter developed in quantity in the course of World War II. The official Japanese name and designation was Kawanishi N1K2 Shiden (Violet Lightning). This outstanding land-based fighter sprang straight from a floatplane fighter style, the N1K1 REX (see NASM collection).

A lot of countries utilized floatplanes for scouting and reconnaissance duties, and to hunt submarines and surface ships, but only Japan constructed and fielded fighters on floats. The Japanese Imperial Navy intended to use these specialized aircraft to obtain air superiority above a beachhead to help amphibious landing operations where carrier or land-based fighters were unavailable. The Kawanishi N1K1 (Allied codename REX) was the only airplane designed specifically for this objective to fly for the duration of Planet War II.

In September 1940, the Japanese Navy issued a specification for floatplane fighters capable of supporting offensive naval operations. A team of engineers like Toshihara Baba, Shizuo Kikuhara, Hiroyuki Inoue, and Elizaburo Adachi had readied the first prototype by May 1942, and it flew on Might six. Tests showed that the speed of new airplane was only slightly significantly less than the Mitsubishi A6M Zero (see NASM collection) and the amphibious fighter was practically as maneuverable as its land-based cousin. This was remarkable efficiency for an aircraft that could not retract or jettison its huge landing gear.

Extended just before the initial Kyofu flew, Kawanishi engineers believed that the fundamental style would also make an exceptional land-based fighter. The conversion appeared to entail just replacing the primary and wingtip floats with a traditional landing gear. The business decided to develop this variant as a private venture. As the project unfolded, the engineers decided to replace the 14-cylinder engine with a new 18-cylinder model anticipated to generate about two,000 horsepower. The new engine needed a bigger propeller and this element, in turn, needed abnormally extended landing gear struts to stop the blade tips from contacting the ground. Kawanishi flew the initial N1K1-J land-primarily based fighter on December 27, 1942. The new engine failed to provide the expected power and the landing gear functioned poorly. The airplane also fell short of projected speed (649 kph – 403 mph) by 74 kph (46 mph) and could manage only 575 kph (357 mph). This was faster than the Mitsubishi A6M Zero ZEKE, even so, and the Japanese Navy badly required an efficient counter to new American naval fighter aircraft such as the Grumman F6F Hellcat and Vought F4U Corsair (see NASM collection). The Japanese Navy ordered Kawanishi to abandon two other fighter projects and start off creating Shidens.

By the finish of 1943, Kawanishi delivered about 70 of the new fighters and the Navy utilized these airplanes for pilot familiarization and education. Expecting Allied amphibious landings in the Philippines, the Navy sent the first Shiden unit to Cebu in time to challenge Allied air energy supporting the invasion of that island in October 1944. Engine, landing gear, logistics, and upkeep problems plagued the Shiden units but Allied pilots realized they faced a excellent new Japanese fighter.

With N1K1-J production underway and Shidens flying combat missions, Kawanishi set about refining the design and style. They lowered the wings from mid-fuselage and the additional ground clearance permitted the engineers to install a shorter, a lot more traditional and significantly less-troublesome landing gear, simplified the fuselage structure, and redesigned the empennage. Only the wings and armament remained from the initial design. The engine continued to give trouble, but the Navy was impressed with these improvements and ordered the new version into production as the N1K2-J Shiden Kai (modified). In air-to-air combat, experienced Japanese pilots flying Shiden Kais could more than hold their personal against most American pilots flying F6F Hellcats. In February 1945, a brave pilot, Warrant Officer Muto, single-handedly engaged 12 Hellcats and shot down four of them just before the remainder disengaged. Flying intercept missions against Boeing B-29 Superfortresses above the house islands, the Shiden Kai was significantly less successful because of inadequate climb speed and energy loss at higher altitudes.

Kawanishi created a number of other variants and planned much more when the war ended. About 1,500 of the various models have been developed. In battle over Formosa (Taiwan), the Philippines, Okinawa, and the home islands, Shiden pilots acquitted themselves nicely but this superb airplane was one more excellent design that appeared as well late and in also couple of numbers to reverse Japan’s fortunes in the air war.

NASM’s Shiden Kai is one of three remaining today. The other two are displayed at the U. S. Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, and the New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. American intelligence units collected four GEORGE fighters from numerous Japanese airfields and delivered them to Yokosuka Naval Shipyard for shipment to the United States. The NASM GEORGE came from Omura or Oppama Naval Air Station, Japan, and the fighter arrived stateside aboard the escort carrier &quotUSS Barnes.&quot It was possibly evaluated at the Naval Aircraft Factory at Philadelphia, and then moved to Willow Grove Naval Air Station. The GEORGE remained outdoors on show and steadily deteriorated along with a group of German and Japanese airplanes till 1983 when the Smithsonian Institution acquired it. The airplane was stored at the Paul Garber Facility until NASM loaned it to the Champlin Fighter Museum in Mesa, Arizona, for restoration in December 1991 and the project was completed in November 1994. The restored Shiden Kai wears the colors and markings of the 343rd Kokutai, a unit stationed at Omura Naval Air Station in 1945.

Transferred from the United States Navy.

Manufacturer:
Kawanishi Kokuki K. K.

Date:
1942

Country of Origin:
Japan

Dimensions:
Overall: 400 x 930cm, 2675kg, 1200cm (13ft 1 1/2in. x 30ft 6 1/8in., 5897.3lb., 39ft 4 7/16in.)

Supplies:
All-metal monocoque construction

Physical Description:
Single-engine, low-wing monoplane, standard layout with tailwheel landing gear.

IMG_0159
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Image by 3DMONG

Panzer VI Model B – Sdkz 182
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Image by Nigel_Brown
The Tiger II was the second German heavy tank to see production. Like the Tiger I, (See E1951.23 Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Aus E), it had its’ roots in a improvement programme that began in 1937. It was clear by the middle of 1941 that an even far more effective tank gun would be necessary than the 56 calibre 8.8cm already selected for the eventually unsuccessful Porsche Tiger I, the VK45.01 (P).

Instructions had been issued to the Krupp firm to see if the Rheinmettall made Flak41 eight.8cm gun could be fitted in the turret that Krupp had designed for the Porsche Tiger I. This proved to be not possible since of the great length of the Flak41, (it was 74 calibres long). Soon after a excellent deal of political manoeuvring, Krupp was given a contract to create a new higher overall performance eight.8cm tank gun, the KwK43. They also developed a turret that would match the subsequent Porsche design and style for a heavy tank, the VK45.02 (P).

This second Porsche style also failed since its’ many revolutionary characteristics couldn’t be produced to function reliably. Meanwhile the Henschel business was provided a contract to design and style a heavy tank that became the Tiger I. It entered service in the late summer of 1942. The Porsche Tiger project was cancelled in November 1942 and Henschel was then instructed to design an upgraded tank that could carry the gun and turret developed for the VK45.02 (P). This tank was offered the improvement designation VK45.03 (H) and was to be made as quickly as possible.

The wish to make to create the new Henschel heavy tank swiftly was frustrated by frequent alterations in the technical needs. These incorporated an enhance in the armour thickness on the hull front and the sides and a need to obtain as much commonality as achievable with the design for the proposed Panther II. It was later estimated that these adjustments had delayed the project by at least 3 months. The new tank was officially named the Tiger II in March 1943. Later in the war it was unofficially named the Konigstiger (King Tiger) the British and Americans at times translated this as ‘Royal Tiger’.

The 1st prototype Tiger II was delivered for testing in November 1943. The first three production machines followed two a lot more prototypes in January 1944. The very first tanks to reach operational units were issued in June 1944. They were soon in action on each the Eastern Front and in France.

The shape of the hull of the Tiger II resembled that of the Panther. The armour was nicely sloped to resist shot and was welded. The hull front armour was 15cm thick and was impervious to all modern Allied tank and anti-tank guns. The front of the later version of the turret was 18cm thick. The hull side armour was 8cm thick. The hull was carried by 9 pairs of wheels on each side, joined by torsion bars. The wheels ran on wide tracks to spread the weight. These ‘combat tracks’ had to be changed for narrower transport tracks before the tank could be carried by rail, an arduous job.

The Tiger II used the exact same rear mounted Maybach petrol engine as the Tiger I. Each the engine and transmission, originally created to power a 40ton tank, had been more than-stretched by the 70ton weight of the Tiger II. They proved to be unreliable. With a power/weight ratio of about 11hp/ton the tank had relatively poor agility and mobility and a cross-country speed of no more than 20kph.

The Tiger II’s gun was formidable. The 8.8cm KwK43 was 71 calibres long and fired a projectile that weighed 10.2kgs at a muzzle velocity of 1,000 metres/second. The gun was extremely precise and could penetrate 16.5cm (six.five inches) of steel armour sloping at 30 degrees at 1,000 metres range. Every single Allied tank was vulnerable to this gun.

The 1st 50 Tiger II tanks were fitted with the Krupp turret developed for the Porsche VK45.02 (P). These are often (inaccurately) known as ‘Porsche’ turrets. The original style of turret had a rounded front and mantlet that proved to be a shot trap and was high-priced to generate. Accordingly a new design and style of turret, known as the ‘serienturm’, with a flat front plate was made and fitted to all subsequent production. In this turret the eight.8cm gun was carried in bell shaped mantlet. The primary gun was supplemented by a coaxial 7.62mm machine gun and by a second machine gun mounted in the glacis. The commander had a third machine gun mounted on a ring about the cupola hatch.

A total of 1,500 Tiger II tanks have been ordered. Henschel only managed to generate 489 gun tanks amongst November 1943 and March 1945. It is mentioned that production of in between 600 and 700 tanks was lost simply because of the effects of heavy air raids on the Henschel plant in Kassel.

Two variants of the Tiger II saw production: a command tank and the Jagdtiger tank destroyer (see E1952.34 Jagdtiger).

The Tank Museum’s Tiger II is the second of the 3 trial autos that had been produced late in 1943. It is fitted with the original style of turret and was utilised only for tests at the Sennelager proving ground. It was captured by the British at the end of the War and extensively evaluated at the College of Tank Technologies.

The Tiger II was issued to the independent heavy tank battalions (schwerepanzerabteilung) of the Army and Waffen SS and in little numbers to the Panzer Lehr trials unit and the Feldherrnhalle division. The first unit to have the Tiger II on the Eastern Front was the Army’s 501st heavy tank battalion. The first heavy tank battalion outfitted in the west was the Army’s 503rd heavy tank battalion. The last tanks to be created were collected directly from the factory by the 510th and 511th heavy tank battalions in March 1945.

The Tiger II design and style emphasised firepower and protection at the expense of mobility. It was properly suited to the defensive fighting in which the German army was engaged in throughout the last months of Planet War II. In spite of its’ relatively poor reliability it was an successful weapon and was a lot feared by Allied tank crews.

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Profile view of the SR-71 Blackbird, F-4 Corsair, Peashooter, among other individuals

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Profile view of the SR-71 Blackbird, F-4 Corsair, Peashooter, amongst other individuals
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Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technologies developments in the course of the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its final flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging three,418 kilometers (two,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane more than to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. &quotKelly&quot Johnson

Date:
1964

Nation of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
All round: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (five.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft five 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Components:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-kind material) to reduce radar cross-section Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines function big inlet shock cones.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing P-26A Peashooter :

The Boeing P-26A of the mid-to-late 1930s introduced the concept of the higher-overall performance, all-metal monoplane fighter design, which would become standard during World War II. A radical departure from wood-and-fabric biplanes, the Peashooter nonetheless retained an open cockpit, fixed landing gear, and external wing bracing.

Most P-26As stationed overseas have been sooner or later sold to the Philippines or assigned to the Panama Canal Division Air Force, a branch of the U.S. Army Air Corps. Several went to China and 1 to Spain. This one was primarily based at Selfridge Field in Michigan and Fairfield Air Depot in Ohio among its acceptance by the U.S. Army Air Corps in 1934 and its transfer to the Canal Zone in 1938. It was offered to Guatemala in 1942 and flew in the Guatemalan air force until 1954. Guatemala donated it to the Smithsonian in 1957.

Present of the Guatemalan Air Force, Republic of Guatemala

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.

Date:
1934

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Wingspan: eight.5 m (27 ft 11 in)
Length:7.three m (23 ft 11 in)
Height:three.1 m (10 ft 2 in)
Weight, empty:996 kg (two,196 lb)
Weight, gross:1,334 kg (two,935 lb)
Best speed:377 km/h (234 mph)
Engine:Pratt &amp Whitney R-1340-27, 600 hp
Armament:two .30 cal. M2 Browning aircraft machine guns

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Vought F4U-1D Corsair :

By V-J Day, September two, 1945, Corsair pilots had amassed an 11:1 kill ratio against enemy aircraft. The aircraft’s distinctive inverted gull-wing style allowed ground clearance for the enormous, three-bladed Hamilton Normal Hydromatic propeller, which spanned more than four meters (13 feet). The Pratt and Whitney R-2800 radial engine and Hydromatic propeller was the biggest and one of the most strong engine-propeller combinations ever flown on a fighter aircraft.

Charles Lindbergh flew bombing missions in a Corsair with Marine Air Group 31 against Japanese strongholds in the Pacific in 1944. This airplane is painted in the colors and markings of the Corsair Sun Setter, a Marine close-assistance fighter assigned to the USS Essex in July 1944.

Transferred from the United States Navy.

Manufacturer:
Vought Aircraft Business

Date:
1940

Nation of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
General: 460 x 1020cm, 4037kg, 1250cm (15ft 1 1/8in. x 33ft five 9/16in., 8900lb., 41ft 1/8in.)

Materials:
All metal with fabric-covered wings behind the principal spar.

Physical Description:
R-2800 radial air-cooled engine with 1,850 horsepower, turned a 3-blade Hamilton Standard Hydromatic propeller with strong aluminum blades spanning 13 feet 1 inch wing bent gull-shaped on each sides of the fuselage.

Swordfish Aircraft
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Image by Defence Images
A Swordfish aircraft with the Royal Navy Historic Flight.

The Swordfish evolved from the prototype Fairey TSR.II (Torpedo Spotter Reconnaissance), made by Marcel Lobelle and HE Chaplin of the Fairey Aviation Organization Ltd., initial flew in 1934 and entered service with No.825 Squadron in 1936. In all, 2391 aircraft have been constructed, the first 692 machines by Fairey Aviation and the remainder below licence by Blackburn Aircraft Company at their works at Sherburn-in-Elmet and Brough, Yorkshire. In service the Blackburn-built aircraft became unofficially recognized as &quotBlackfish&quot. Probably the most outstanding aspect of this very distinguished aircraft was its longevity.

Even though by all regular requirements it was already obsolete at the outbreak of WW2, it confounded every person by remaining in operational service throughout the complete of the war, and thereby gained the distinction of becoming the last British bi-plane to see active service. Indeed, it outlasted its intended replacement, the Albacore, which disappeared from front-line service in 1943.

The Royal Navy Historic Flight are the guardians of the Fleet Air Arm’s proud history, upholding the memory of naval aviators by keeping vintage aircraft airborne.

——————————————————-
© Crown Copyright 2013
Photographer: CPOA Susan Emery
Image 45155477.jpg from www.defenceimages.mod.uk

This image is offered for higher resolution download at www.defenceimagery.mod.uk topic to the terms and circumstances of the Open Government License at www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/. Search for image number 45155477.jpg

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Additive manufacturing requires center stage

Additive manufacturing requires center stage
Plus, manufacturing buyers are specifically interested in additive manufacturing and how it can be utilised with injection molding in a production capacity. It&#39s refreshing to see more severe interest paid to additive for manufacturing. Even so, there …
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Moldmaker Experiments with Hollow Mold Inserts as Alternative to Conformal Cooling
This maker of injection-molded plastic parts is nothing if not imaginative—it applies in-house mold engineering and mold machining capabilities to overcome sophisticated injection molding challenges for automakers and health-related device makers (amongst …
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FirstMerit Bank Organization Credit Supplies .1MM in Recent Bargains
FirstMerit Bank Business Credit closed a new $ 7.5 revolving loan facility and term loan facility to Wisconsin Plastics, Inc. on March 11, 2016. Proceeds of the facility have been used to refinance current debt, supply functioning capital as effectively as facilitate …
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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird port panorama (Bowlus 1-S-2100 Senior Albatross “Falcon” & Boeing P-26A Peashooter overhead)

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird port panorama (Bowlus 1-S-2100 Senior Albatross “Falcon” & Boeing P-26A Peashooter overhead)
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Image by Chris Devers
See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Bowlus 1-S-2100 Senior Albatross "Falcon"

Hawley Bowlus developed the Senior Albatross series from a design he called the Bowlus Super Sailplane. In Germany, designers and pilots led the world in the building and flying of high-performance gliders, and Bowlus was strongly influenced by their work. He and German glider pioneer, Martin Schempp, taught courses in aircraft design and construction at the Curtiss-Wright Technical Institute in Glendale, California. The two instructors led a group of students that built the Super Sailplane in 1932. The Super’ served as a prototype for the Senior Albatross.

In May 1934, Warren E. Eaton acquired the Senior Albatross now preserved at NASM from Hawley Bowlus. Eaton joined the U. S. Army Air Service and flew SPAD XIII fighters (see NASM collection) in the 103rd Aero Squadron, 3rd Pursuit Group, at Issoudon, France, from August 27, 1918, to the Armistice. He was credited with downing one enemy aircraft in aerial combat. After the war, Eaton founded the Soaring Society of America and became that organization’s first president.

Gift of Mrs. Genevieve J. Eaton.

Manufacturer:
Bowlus-Dupont Sailplane Company

Date:
1933

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Wingspan: 18.8 m (61 ft 9 in)
Length: 7.2 m (23 ft 7 in)
Height: 1.6 m (5 ft 4 in)
Weight: Empty, 153 kg (340 lb) Gross, 236 kg (520 lb)

Materials:
Originally skinned with mahogany and covered with lightweight cotton "glider cloth," then covered with a shellac-based varnish. In 2000, restorers removed original fabric and shellac coating, recovered with Grade A cotton fabric followed by several coats of nitrate dope, then lemon shellac, finishing with several coats of Johnson Wax.

Physical Description:
Monoplane glider with strut-braced, gull-type wing mounted high on monocoque fuselage; wooden construction with steel and aluminum fittings and controls; fuselage and wing leading edge covered with mahogany plywood. Fuselage skin applied over laminated Spruce bulkheads. Landing gear consists of single-wheel and …. [size?] tire mounted beneath forward fuselage, spring-steel tail skid beneath rudder.

Cockpit covered with hood made from laminated Spruce bulkheads and covered with Mahogany plywood. Circular openings cut into hood on either side of pilot’s head. Instrumentation: altimeter, airspeed, variometer plus a bank-and-turn indicator powered by low-speed venturi tube installed on retractable mount beneath right wingroot.

Areas aft of wing spar and all control surfaces covered with glider cloth. Cloth is doped directly onto ribs and plywood skin without stitching for smooth finish. Constant-chord wing from fuselage to mid-span, tapered profile from mid-span to wingtip; constant-chord,
split-trailing edge flaps and high-aspect ratio ailerons. A Gö 549 airfoil is used at the wing root, becoming symmetrical at the tip.

All-flying elevator mounted on duraluminum torque-tube, rudder hinged to box-beam post, both surfaces built up from Spruce and covered with glider cloth.

Long Description:
Long before he designed and built the Bowlus-DuPont "Falcon," William Hawley Bowlus had contributed to aviation history. In 1926, T. Claude Ryan hired him as factory manager at the Ryan Airlines, Inc., plant at San Diego, California. Late in February 1927, Bowlus and twenty Ryan workmen, supervised by chief engineer Donald A. Hall and Charles A. Lindbergh, built a long-range monoplane based on the Ryan M-2. Lindbergh christened the modified M-2 the "Spirit of St. Louis." It is said that Bowlus suggested several design features that Lindbergh approved and incorporated in the finished airplane. Bowlus renewed his friendship with Lindbergh late in 1929. He taught the ocean flyer and his wife, Anne Morrow, to fly sailplanes and in January 1930, both Charles and Anne completed their first solo glider flights.

Hawley Bowlus developed the Senior Albatross series from a design that he called the Bowlus Super Sailplane. In Germany, designers and pilots led the world in building and flying high-performance gliders and Bowlus was strongly influenced by their work. He and German glider pioneer, Martin Schempp, taught courses in aircraft design and construction at the Curtiss-Wright Technical Institute in Glendale, California. The two instructors led a group of students who built the Super Sailplane in 1932. The Super Sailplane served as a prototype for the Senior Albatross. The wing of the Super was nearly a copy of the German "Wein" sailplane designed and flown with great success in 1930 and 1931 by Robert Kronfeld. Both gliders employed the same Goettingen 549 wing airfoil and even the tips of the control surfaces curved to almost identical contours. When Bowlus built the Senior Albatross series, the cockpit enclosure closely resembled another record-setting and influential German sailplane, the "Fafnir," designed by Alexander Lippisch specifically for pilot Gunther Groenhoff.

Richard C. du Pont was also an important character in the history of the Senior Albatross. By the time he finished high school, this heir to the Delaware-based chemical empire could fly gliders with some skill. During his first year at the University of Virginia, he founded a campus soaring club. His passion for motorless flight drew him farther away from traditional academics and in 1932, he transferred to the Curtiss-Wright Technical Institute. Du Pont was probably among the students who built the Super Albatross.

In 1933, du Pont teamed with Hawley Bowlus and the two men set up shop in San Fernando, California, to build gliders. Bowlus furnished the design expertise and performed much of the construction. Du Pont supplied enthusiasm, labor, and financing. The Bowlus-DuPont Sailplane Company became an official entity in 1934 not in California, but in Delaware. The firm folded in September 1936 but during its short corporate life, the small factory built four examples of the Senior Albatross but no two were constructed exactly alike. All four sailplanes did have ‘gull’ wings (each wing was bent down slightly at about mid-span) and this feature differentiates these airplanes from the prototype Super Sailplane. Bowlus fitted two with wing flaps, rather than spoilers, for better speed and altitude control during landing. Mahogany plywood skinned one and spruce plywood covered the other three aircraft. Bowlus sold each of these handcrafted airplanes for ,500.

In 1935, Hawley Bowlus began work on a two-seat Senior Albatross built from aluminum but other distractions delayed completion until 1940. In 1939, Ernest Langley and Jim Gough built another Senior Albatross at the Bowlus ranch in California.

Performance calculations revealed a best glide ratio of 23:1 when flying at 64.4 kph (40 mph). If it became necessary, the pilot of a Senior Albatross could push his mount well over 161 kph (100 mph) as long as he never exceeded a speed of 241.5 kph (150 mph). With an accomplished pilot at the controls, the Senior Albatross could fly better than any American airplane without a motor and they were very pleasing to look at too. A quotation from the July 1934 issue of "Aviation," a popular periodical, sums up one writer’s impressions of the Bowlus-Du Pont Senior Albatross:

"Few flying machines have ever exhibited such an extraordinary combination of workmanship, finish, and aerodynamic refinement, so that it seems quite safe to say that the new ships represent the ultimate in soaring design practice in the United States, if not the world."

The pilots who flew the Senior Albatross nearly dominated American competitive soaring. In 1933, Richard du Pont flew the first Senior Albatross at the fourth U. S. National Soaring Championships held at Elmira, New York. On September 21, du Pont set the American sailplane distance record by flying 196 km (121.6 miles). On June 25, 1934, he flew to within 3.2 km (2 miles) of New York City and established a new world distance record of 254 km (158 miles). On June 30, 1934, du Pont set the U. S. altitude record for sailplanes by climbing to 1,892 m (6,223 ft). The following year, Lewin Barringer soared his Senior Albatross parallel to the ridges of the Allegheny Mountains for 250.3 km (155.5 miles).

In May 1934, Warren E. Eaton acquired from Hawley Bowlus the Senior Albatross that is now preserved at NASM. Eaton was already a veteran aviator. He had joined the U. S. Army Air Service and flew SPAD XIII fighters (see NASM collection) in the 103rd Aero Squadron, 3rd Pursuit Group, at Issoudon, France, from August 27, 1918, until Armistice Day, November 11. He was credited with downing one enemy aircraft in aerial combat. After the war, Eaton founded the Soaring Society of America and became that organization’s first president.

Eaton had commissioned Bowlus to build this glider after he saw Richard C. du Pont fly the second Senior Albatross at the U. S. Nationals the year before. Eaton’s ordered flaps for his aircraft and it was the only Senior Albatross skinned with mahogany plywood. He christened it "Falcon" and it bore the federal aircraft registration number G13763. Several gold decals edged in black also appeared at various locations on the fuselage. "Warren E. Eaton" and "Falcon" appeared on both sides of the nose. A stylized albatross and the company motto "On the Wings of an Albatross" were applied to the vertical fin above the words "Bowlus-Du Pont Sailplane Company."

Eaton first flew the glider at San Diego. In June, he brought it to the national contest at Harris Hill, New York. At Big Meadows, Virginia, Eaton set the American soaring altitude record, 2,765 m (9,094 ft), during September 1934. Three months later, Eaton died in Florida flying a Franklin p glider.

In 1935, Warren Eaton’s widow, Genevieve, donated the "Falcon" to the Smithsonian Institution. It arrived in Washington on May 28 and a few days later, museum personnel suspended the glider from the ceiling of the West Hall of the Arts and Industries Building where it remained on display for many years.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing P-26A Peashooter:

The Boeing P-26A of the mid-to-late 1930s introduced the concept of the high-performance, all-metal monoplane fighter design, which would become standard during World War II. A radical departure from wood-and-fabric biplanes, the Peashooter nonetheless retained an open cockpit, fixed landing gear, and external wing bracing.

Most P-26As stationed overseas were eventually sold to the Philippines or assigned to the Panama Canal Department Air Force, a branch of the U.S. Army Air Corps. Several went to China and one to Spain. This one was based at Selfridge Field in Michigan and Fairfield Air Depot in Ohio between its acceptance by the U.S. Army Air Corps in 1934 and its transfer to the Canal Zone in 1938. It was given to Guatemala in 1942 and flew in the Guatemalan air force until 1954. Guatemala donated it to the Smithsonian in 1957.

Gift of the Guatemalan Air Force, Republic of Guatemala

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.

Date:
1934

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Wingspan: 8.5 m (27 ft 11 in)
Length:7.3 m (23 ft 11 in)
Height:3.1 m (10 ft 2 in)
Weight, empty:996 kg (2,196 lb)
Weight, gross:1,334 kg (2,935 lb)
Top speed:377 km/h (234 mph)
Engine:Pratt & Whitney R-1340-27, 600 hp
Armament:two .30 cal. M2 Browning aircraft machine guns

• • • • •

See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its last flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane over to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Materials:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature large inlet shock cones.

The Soviet WWII Ground-Attack Aircraft Ilyushin Il-10 ‘Shturmovik’. Советский штурмовик Ил-10.
prototype factory in china
Image by Peer.Gynt

The Central AirForce Museim, Monino.

Ilyushin Il-10 (Cyrillic Илью́шин Ил-10, NATO reporting name: "Beast") was a Soviet ground attack aircraft developed at the end of World War II by the Ilyushin construction bureau. It was also license-built in Czechoslovakia by Avia as the Avia B-33.
Development

From the start of Eastern Front combat in World War II, the Soviet Air Force (VVS) used the successful ground attack aircraft Ilyushin Il-2 Sturmovik, powered by the Mikulin AM-38 inline engine. As the war progressed, the Soviets laid plans for that aircraft’s successor. The main goal was to increase speed and maneuverability at low altitudes, mainly to evade small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery, which was the main threat for ground attack aircraft, and to remove some of the Il-2’s faults. The most promising project was a modern, light and maneuverable close assault aircraft, the Sukhoi Su-6, developed by Pavel Sukhoi’s bureau from 1942. At the same time, Sergei Ilyushin developed a heavier aircraft, the VSh or Il-8 M-71, derived from the Il-2 design, and on which it was partly based. Both projects were powered by the prototype M-71 radial engine, which did not enter production.

In 1943, Ilyushin started work on a new aircraft, Il-1, which was to be a 1- or 2-seat heavily armoured fighter-interceptor, meant mainly for fighting enemy bombers and transports. The Il-1 was similar to the Il-2 design, but was more modern, compact, and powered with a new Mikulin engine: the AM-42. But the VVS gave up the idea of heavy armoured fighters, due to their low speed, which was not enough to intercept modern bombers. As a result, Ilyushin decided to turn the Il-1 into a two-seat ground attack plane, with the designation changed to Il-10 in early 1944 (odd numbers were reserved for fighters).

At that time, Ilyushin also finished a prototype of a heavier ground attack plane, the Il-8, using the same engine, and more closely derived from the Il-2. It carried a higher payload (1,000 kg/2,204 lb), but had lower performance than the Il-10. Both types first flew in April 1944, the Il-10 proving greatly superior to the Il-8, which had poor handling. The Il-10 successfully passed trials in early June 1944.

The third competitor was a new variant of the Sukhoi Su-6, also powered by the AM-42 engine. After comparative tests, the Il-10 was considered the winner and was chosen as the new ground attack plane, despite some opinions that the Su-6 was a better aircraft, notwithstanding inferior performance and payload, with better gun armament. Notably, the Su-6 prototype was tested with maximum payload, causing lowered performance, while the Il-10 was tested with normal payload. Some advantages of the Il-10 came from its technical similarity to the Il-2.
On 23 August 1944 the Il-10 was ordered into serial production by decision of the State Defense Committee (GKO) as a new ground attack plane.[5] Its armament was initially similar to late model Il-2s, with two 23 mm VYa-23 cannons and two ShKAS machine guns in the wings, and a 12.7 mm UBT machine gun for a rear gunner, and 400 kg, or a maximum 600 kg of bombs. Unlike the Il-2 and Su-6, it was not initially meant to carry rockets.

Production of the Il-10 started in Kuybyshev’s factories No. 1 and No. 18. The first production aircraft flew on 27 September 1944 and 99 aircraft were produced by the end of 1944. Early series aircraft showed teething problems, most notably engine faults and fires. Most problems were eliminated by 1945. Aircraft produced from April 1945 onwards could carry four unguided air-to ground rockets. Aircraft produced from 1947 onwards were fitted with stronger armament, consisting of four 23 mm NS-23 cannons in the wings and a 20 mm cannon for the rear gunner. Il-10 production ended in 1949, after a run of 4,600 aircraft; in the last two years, they were produced in factory No. 64.

Between 1945 and 1947, 280 UIl-2 or Il-10U trainer variants were produced. The rear gunner’ cockpit was replaced with a longer instructor’s cockpit with dual controls. Its performance and construction were similar to the combat variant apart from armament, which was reduced to two cannons, two rockets, and a standard load of bombs.

In 1951, the Czechoslovak firm Avia secured a license to make Il-10s, with the designation B-33. The first one flew on 26 December 1951. Initially, their engines were Soviet-built. From 1952 onwards the engines were also produced in Czechoslovakia as the M-42. Besides the combat variant, a Czechoslovak trainer variant also entered service under the designation CB-33. In total, 1,200 B-33s were built by 1956.
In 1951, due to experience acquired during the Korean War, the Soviet Air Force decided that propeller ground attack aircraft might still be useful, and decided to renew Il-10 production in a modified variant, the Il-10M, which first flew on 2 July 1951. It was a bit longer, with a wider wingspan, and larger control surfaces, with a fin under the tail. Four of the more recently developed NR-23 cannons were mounted in the wings, while the payload stayed the same, and newer navigation equipment was installed, giving partial all-weather capability. Speed decreased slightly, but handling improved. Between 1953 and 1954, 146 Il-10Ms were made, all but 10 in Rostov-on-Don’s factory No.168.

In total, 6,166 of all Il-10 variants were made, including those built under license.

Trials of Il-10s mounted with more powerful AM-43 and AM-45 engines took place, but proved unsuccessful. Ilyushin next designed a lighter close support aircraft, the Il-16, with improved performance and similar armament. It first flew on 10 June 1945. A short run entered production, but the project was cancelled in 1946 due to the AM-43 engine’s unreliability.
Technical description

The airframe featured one engine, two-seat, monoplane, with a metal-covered frame. The plane was highly armoured. The front part of the fuselage, with the cockpit, was a shell of armour plates 4–8 mm thick; the thickest, 8 mm, were under the engine, there was no armour above the engine. The front windshield was made of armour glass 64 mm (2.5 in) thick. Also armoured was: a roof above the pilot, side window frames in the pilot’s cab, a wall between crew seats, and a rear wall behind the cab. Total armour weight was 994 kg, including its attachment. The wing consisted of a central section, with two bomb bays, and two detachable outer panels. The undercarriage was retractable. The main wheels folded to the rear after rotating by 86°.

Early Il-10s had two 23 mm VYa-23 autocannons (150 rounds each) and 2 7.62 mm ShKAS machine guns (750 rounds each) fixed in wings, and a 12.7 mm UBT machine gun in a rear gunner station BU-8, with 150 rounds. The horizontal angle of the rear machine gun field of fire was 100°. From 1947, the aircraft were armed with four NS-23 23 mm cannons in the wings (150 rounds each) and 20 mm B-20T cannon in a rear gunner station BU-9 (150 rounds). The IL-10M had four 23 mm NR-23 cannons in wings (150 rounds each) and 20 mm B-20EN cannon in a rear gunner station BU-9M (150 rounds). Avia B-33 had four 23 mm NS-23RM cannons in wings and 20 mm B-20ET cannon in a rear gunner station BU-9M.

The normal bomb load was 400 kg, maximum load was 600 kg. This could be small fragmentation or anti-tank bomblets, put in bomb bays, or four 50–100 kg bombs in bomb bays and externally under wings, or two 200–250 kg bombs attached under wings. Small bomblets were put directly on bomb bay floors, in piles. A typical load was 182 (maximum 200) 2 kg AO-2,5-2 fragmentation bombs, or 144 PTAB-2,5-1,5 anti-tnk HEAT bombs. Apart from bombs, four unguided rockets RS-82 or RS-132 could be carried on rail launchers under wings. Avia B-33s were also fitted to carry other rocket types. Late Soviet aircraft could carry ORO-82 and ORO-132 tube launchers. In the tail section was a DAG-10 launcher with 10 anti-aircraft or anti-personnel grenades AG-2 (after being thrown, they would fall with parachutes and then burst, but were not widely used in practice).

The Il-10 engine was a 12-cylinder inline V engine Mikulin AM-42, liquid-cooled, power: 1,770 hp continuous, takeoff power: 2,000 hp. Three-blade propeller AV-5L-24 of 3.6 m diameter. Two fuel tanks in the fuselage: upper 440 l over engine, ahead of the cockpit, and lower tank of 290 l under the cockpit. The aircraft had a radio set and a camera AFA-1M in a rear section of the fuselage.
Operational history

In October 1944, the Il-10 first entered service with training units in the Soviet Air Force. In January 1945, the first Il-10 combat unit entered service with the 78th Guards Assault Aviation Regiment, but it did not enter action due to unfinished training. However, three other Il-10 units managed to take part in the final combat actions of World War II in Europe. They were the 571st Assault Aviation Regiment (from 15 April 1945), the 108th Guards Assault Aviation Regiment (from 16 April 1945), and the 118th Guards Assault Aviation Regiment (on 8 May 1945). About a dozen aircraft were destroyed by flak or engine breakdowns, but the Il-10 appeared to be a successful design. One was shot down by an Fw 190 fighter, but a crew of the 118th Regiment shot down another Fw 190 and probably damaged another. On 10 May 1945, the day after the official Soviet end of the war, (Victory Day), there were 120 serviceable Il-10s in Soviet Air Force combat units, and 26 disabled ones.

After the USSR reentered the war against the Empire of Japan, with the invasion of Manchuria, from 9 August 1945, one Il-10 unit, the 26th Assault Aviation Regiment of the Pacific Navy Aviation, was used in combat in the Korean Peninsula, attacking Japanese ships in Rasin and rail transports.

After the war, until the early 1950s, the Il-10 was a basic Soviet ground attack aircraft. It was withdrawn from service in 1956. At the same time, work on new jet-powered dedicated armoured ground attack planes (like the Il-40) was canceled, and the Soviets turned to multipurpose fighter-bomber aviation. The Il-10 and its licensed variant, the Avia B-33, became a basic ground attack plane of the Warsaw Pact countries. From 1949 to 1959, the Polish Air Force used 120 Il-10s (including 24 UIl-10), and 281 B-33s. In Poland, the B-33 was modified to carry 400 l fuel tanks under its wings. From 1950 to 1960, Czechoslovakia used 86 Il-10s, including six UIl-10s, and about 600 B-33s. From 1949 to 1956, the Hungarian Air Force used 159 Il-10s and B-33s. From 1950 to 1960, the Romanian Air Force used 14 Il-10s and 156 B-33s. Bulgaria also used these aircraft.

In the late 1940s, 93 Il-10 and UIl-10s were given to North Korea. They were then used in the 57th Assault Aviation Regiment during the early phase of the Korean War. They were initially used with success against the weak anti-aircraft defense of South Korean forces, but then they suffered heavy losses in encounters against the USAAF fighters and were bombed on the ground themselves. After several weeks, about 20 remained. In the summer of 1950, North Korea received more aircraft from the USSR. The North Koreans claimed to sink a warship on 22 August 1950 with Il-10s, but it was never confirmed.

From 1950, Il-10s were used by the People’s Republic of China, in two regiments of an assault aviation division. They were used in combat during a conflict with the Republic of China, (Taiwan), over border islands in January 1955. They remained in service until 1972. From 1957, Yemen used 24 B-33s.

General characteristics
Crew: 2, pilot and gunner
Length: 11.12 m (36 ft 6 in)
Wingspan: 13.40 m (44 ft)
Height: 4.10 m (13 ft 5 in)
Wing area: 30 m2 (322.9)
Empty weight: 4,675 kg (10,305 lb)
Loaded weight: 6,345 kg (14,000 lb)
Max. takeoff weight: 6,537 kg (14,410)
Powerplant: 1 × Mikulin AM-42 liquid-cooled V-12, 1,320 Kw (1,770 hp)

Performance
Maximum speed: 550 km/h at 2,700 m; 500 km/h at ground level (340 mph at 8,860 ft / 310 mph)
Range: 800 km (500 mi)
Service ceiling: 4,000 m (13,123 ft)
Wing loading: 211 kg/m2 (43.2 lb/ft2)

Armament

2 × 23 mm Nudelman-Suranov NS-23 auto cannons in wings, 150 rounds per gun
2 × 7.62 mm ShKAS machine guns in wings, 750 rounds per gun
1 × 12.7 mm UBST machine gun in the BU-9 rear gunner station, 190 rounds
Up to 600 kg (1,320 lb) of various weapons as described in the text.

Wikipedia

An exhibition of built in China industrial machinary in Shanghai, in what was once the Hall of Soviet Chinese Friendship. These are all prototypes, and are never seen in use in factories open to the western visitor. They occasionally crop up, however…
prototype factory in china
Image by Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, UofT
Creator: Mark Gayn
Title: An exhibition of built in China industrial machinary in Shanghai, in what was once the Hall of Soviet Chinese Friendship. These are all prototypes, and are never seen in use in factories open to the western visitor. They occasionally crop up, however, in Chinese propaganda films demonstrating the nation’s achievements.
Date: 1965
Extent: 1 photograph: black and white (20 x 25cm)
Notes: Title transcribed from caption
Picture shows industrial machinery made in China, in the former Hall of Soviet Chinese Friendship in Shanghai.
Format: Photograph
Rights Info: No known restrictions on access
Repository: Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario Canada, M5S 1A5, library.utoronto.ca/fisher

(Post from China rapid prototyping manufacturer blog)

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay” panorama

Check out these china prototype business images:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay” panorama
china prototype company
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed P-38J-ten-LO Lightning:

In the P-38 Lockheed engineer Clarence &quotKelly&quot Johnson and his team of designers produced a single of the most effective twin-engine fighters ever flown by any nation. From 1942 to 1945, U. S. Army Air Forces pilots flew P-38s more than Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific, and from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Lightning pilots in the Pacific theater downed much more Japanese aircraft than pilots flying any other Allied warplane.

Maj. Richard I. Bong, America’s major fighter ace, flew this P-38J-10-LO on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field, Ohio, to evaluate an experimental technique of interconnecting the movement of the throttle and propeller handle levers. Nevertheless, his correct engine exploded in flight before he could conduct the experiment.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Firm

Date:
1943

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
General: 390 x 1170cm, 6345kg, 1580cm (12ft 9 9/16in. x 38ft four five/8in., 13988.2lb., 51ft 10 1/16in.)

Components:
All-metal

Physical Description:
Twin-tail boom and twin-engine fighter tricycle landing gear.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress &quotEnola Gay&quot:

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of Planet War II and the initial bomber to residence its crew in pressurized compartments. Even though designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 discovered its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a selection of aerial weapons: traditional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August six, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the 1st atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. 3 days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance climate reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Excellent Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 five/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Materials:
Polished general aluminum finish

Physical Description:
4-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and higher-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, regular late-Planet War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial quantity on vertical fin 509th Composite Group markings painted in black &quotEnola Gay&quot in black, block letters on decrease left nose.

Cesar HARADA & Protei on SCMP
china prototype company
Image by cesarharada.com
protei.org
scoutbots.com

Yuen Long farm an hour from the sea might not appear like the ideal place for a boat workshop, but it is where French- Japanese environmentalist and inventor Cesar Harada is based.
That is exactly where he is designing and developing exclusive robotic boats with shape-shifting hulls and the ability to clean up oil spills. The hull alterations shape to control the path “like a fish”, Harada, 30, says. It is efficiently a second sail in the water, so the boat has a tighter turning circle and can even sail backwards.
“I hope to make the world’s most manoeuvrable sailboat,” he says. “The shape-shifting hull is a real breakthrough in technology. No one has accomplished it in a dynamic way just before.”
Harada hopes 1 day a fleet of totally automated boats will patrol the oceans, performing all sorts of clean-up and information- collection tasks, such as radioactivity sensing, coral reef imaging and fish counting.
Asia could advantage drastically because, Harada says, the area has the worst pollution problems in the world. However the story of his invention began in the Gulf of Mexico, following one particular of the most devastating environmental disasters in current years – the 2010 BP oil spill. Harada was operating in building in Kenya when the Massachusetts Institute of Technology hired him to lead a group of researchers to create a robot that could clean up the oil.
He spent half his salary visiting the gulf and hiring a fisherman to take him to the oil spill. More than 700 repurposed fishing boats had been deployed to clean up the slick, but only three per cent of the oil was collected.
It then dawned on him that due to the fact the robot he was creating at MIT was patented, it could only be created by 1 business, which would take a long time, and it would be so pricey that it could only be utilized in rich countries.
This realisation created Harada quit his “dream job” to develop an alternative oil-cleaning technologies: something low cost, quickly and open-supply, so it could be freely used, modified and distributed by anyone, as long as they shared their improvements with the community.
He moved to New Orleans to be closer to the spill, and taught regional residents how to map the oil with cameras attached to balloons and kites.
Harada set up a firm to develop his invention, initially primarily based in New York prior to moving to Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and then San Francisco. Now, Harada says he will be based in Hong Kong for at least the next 5 years. He constructed his workshop and adjoining office in Yuen Long himself in 5 months on what utilized to be a concrete parking space covered with an iron roof after acquiring the site in June last year.
He 1st visited Hong Kong final year whilst sailing about the world on a four-month cruise for entrepreneurs and students. It is the perfect place for his ocean

robotics organization, he says, because the city’s import-export capabilities and the availability of electronics in Shenzhen are the ideal in the planet. Also, Hongkongers are excited about technology, setting up a company is straightforward, taxes are low and regulations versatile, he says.
He named the boat Protei after the proteus salamander, which lives in the caves of Slovenia. “Our very first boat really looked like this ugly, strange, blind salamander,” Harada
says with a laugh. He later discovered that Proteus is the nameofaGreekseagod–oneof the sons of Poseidon, who protects sea creatures by changing form, and the name stuck. “He is the shepherd of the sea,” Harada says.
Harada built the very first 4 prototypes in a month by hacking and reconfiguring toys in his garage, and invented the shape-shifting hull to pull lengthy objects. A cylinder of oil- absorbent material is attached to the finish of the boat that soaks up oil like a sponge. The shape-
shifting hull permits the jib – or front sail – and the major sail to be at various angles to the wind, permitting the boat to sail upwind much more efficiently, intercepting spilled oil that is drifting downwind.
“Sailing is an ancient technology that we are abandoning. But it’s how humans colonised the whole earth, so it is a truly effective technology,” Harada says. “The shape-shifting hull is a superior way of steering a wind vessel.”
The prototype is now in its 11th generation. The hull, which measures about a metre extended, looks and moves like a snake’s spine. Harada built 10 prototypes this month, which are sold online to men and women and institutions who want to create the technology for their personal uses.
He has collaborators in South Korea, Norway, Mexico and many other countries.
“The a lot more folks copy us, the better the technologies becomes,” he says.
Harada, who describes himself as an environmental entrepreneur, says investors have supplied to purchase half of the business, but he has turned them all down. “They do not understand the environmental aspect of the organization,” he says.
“They want to construct huge boats and sell them as expensively as attainable.”
Harada has a larger vision for Protei. He wants to produce
a new marketplace of automated boats. He hopes that 1 day they will replace the costly, manned ocean-going vessels that are at present utilized for scientific investigation. He says
1 of these ships can expense tens of millions of dollars, and a further US,000 worth of fuel is burned every single day. That does not contain the price of a captain, three or four crew members, a cook and a team of researchers.
The expense of these investigation missions is a single of the motives we know so tiny about the ocean, Harada says. We have explored only 5 per cent of the ocean, even though it covers 70 per cent of the earth. “We know far more about Mars than we know about the ocean.”
He notes that there is no gravity in space, so we can send up large satellites. But submarines that have attempted to discover the depths of the ocean have been crushed by the stress of the water. Ships are not cost-free from threat, either.
“Seafaring is the most hazardous occupation on earth,” Harada says.
Much more people die at sea
than on construction sites.
An automated boat would
also stop researchers
from being exposed to pollution and radiation.
Harada’s Japanese household live 100km from Fukushima, and he will go back there for a third time
in October to measure the underwater radioactivity near the web site. Despite the fact that he admits to getting scared, “it’s the greatest release of radioactive particles in history and nobody is truly talking about it”.
Harada is also working with students from the Harbour College, where he teaches, to develop an optical plastic sensor. “We talk a lot about air pollution, but water pollution is also a large difficulty,” he says.
He says industries in countries such as India and Vietnam have created so quick and numerous environmental troubles in the area have not been addressed. “In Kerala [India], all the rivers have been destroyed. The rivers in Kochi are black like ink and smell of sewage. Now it is entirely not possible to swim or fish in them.”
Hong Kong has not been spared, either. Harada joins beach clean-ups on Lamma Island and says even months soon after an oil spill and government clean-up last year, they found crabs whose lungs have been full of oil. He says locals fish and swim in the water and there are mussels on the seabed that are nonetheless covered in oil.
“The dilemma is as large as the ocean,” Harada says. But he believes if man created the problem, man can remedy it. The son of Japanese sculptor Tetsuo Harada, he grew up in Paris and Saint Malo and studied product and interactive style in France and at the Royal College of Art in London.
But he believes that at an sophisticated level, art and science grow to be indistinguishable.
“I don’t see a barrier among science and art at the prime level,” he says. “It’s where imagination meets details.” darren.wee@scmp.com

(Post from China rapid prototyping manufacturer blog)

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Photomontage of Overview of the south hangar, including B-29 “Enola Gay” and Concorde

A few nice prototype makers china images I identified:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Photomontage of Overview of the south hangar, such as B-29 “Enola Gay” and Concorde
prototype manufacturers china
Image by Chris Devers

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Boeing B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay” (nose view)
prototype manufacturers china
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress &quotEnola Gay&quot:

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of Globe War II and the first bomber to residence its crew in pressurized compartments. Though made to fight in the European theater, the B-29 identified its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a range of aerial weapons: standard bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-constructed B-29-45-MO dropped the very first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. 3 days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum close to Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Nation of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
General: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 five/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Materials:
Polished overall aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and higher-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, normal late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial quantity on vertical fin 509th Composite Group markings painted in black &quotEnola Gay&quot in black, block letters on decrease left nose.

(Post from China rapid prototyping manufacturer blog)

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: south hangar panorama, such as Vought OS2U-3 Kingfisher seaplane, B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay”, amongst other folks

A handful of nice china prototype company pictures I found:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: south hangar panorama, including Vought OS2U-three Kingfisher seaplane, B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay”, amongst others
china prototype company
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Vought OS2U-three Kingfisher:

The Kingfisher was the U.S. Navy’s main ship-based, scout and observation aircraft throughout Globe War II. Revolutionary spot welding techniques gave it a smooth, non-buckling fuselage structure. Deflector plate flaps that hung from the wing’s trailing edge and spoiler-augmented ailerons functioned like added flaps to let slower landing speeds. Most OS2Us operated in the Pacific, exactly where they rescued numerous downed airmen, including Planet War I ace Eddie Rickenbacker and the crew of his B-17 Flying Fortress.

In March 1942, this airplane was assigned to the battleship USS Indiana. It later underwent a six-month overhaul in California, returned to Pearl Harbor, and rejoined the Indiana in March 1944. Lt. j.g. Rollin M. Batten Jr. was awarded the Navy Cross for producing a daring rescue in this airplane below heavy enemy fire on July 4, 1944.

Transferred from the United States Navy.

Manufacturer:
Vought-Sikorsky Aircraft Division

Date:
1937

Nation of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 15ft 1 1/8in. x 33ft 9 1/2in., 4122.6lb., 36ft 1 1/16in. (460 x 1030cm, 1870kg, 1100cm)

Supplies:
Wings covered with fabric aft of the principal spar

Physical Description:
Two-seat monoplane, deflector plate flaps hung from the trailing edge of the wing, ailerons drooped at low airspeeds to function like added flaps, spoilers.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress &quotEnola Gay&quot:

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of Planet War II and the very first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Even though developed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 identified its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a selection of aerial weapons: traditional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-constructed B-29-45-MO dropped the initial atomic weapon utilised in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. 3 days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Nation of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
All round: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Supplies:
Polished general aluminum finish

Physical Description:
4-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish general, common late-Globe War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin 509th Composite Group markings painted in black &quotEnola Gay&quot in black, block letters on reduced left nose.

Human Logistics 人流 / SML.20120910.G12.00234.1
china prototype company
Image by See-ming Lee 李思明 SML
Videography prototype / proof of idea – 1 min 30 sec edit

(Post from China rapid prototyping manufacturer blog)