North American P-51D Mustang

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North American P-51D Mustang
prototype parts made in china

Image by Alex Layzell
History: 1 of the most successful, well-known and gorgeous fighter aircraft of WWII, the P-51 was made to fulfill a British requirement dated April 1940. Due to the fact of the rapidly-mounting clouds of war in Europe, the UK asked North American Aircraft to design and style and construct a new fighter in only 120 days. The NA-73X prototype was made in record time, but did not fly until 26 October 1940. The first RAF production models, designated Mustang Mk Is, underwent rigorous testing and evaluation, and it was located that the 1,one hundred-hp Allison engine was properly suited for low-altitude tactical reconnaissance, but the engine’s power decreased drastically above an altitude of 12,000 feet, making it a poor decision for air-to-air combat or interception roles. Due to the fact of this, the RAF left its eight machine guns intact, but also fitted the Mustang with cameras. In this configuration, it served in at least 23 RAF squadrons, beginning in April 1942.

At the exact same time, the US Army Air Corps ordered a tiny number for tactical reconnaissance evaluation as the F-6A. Right after the RAF found the aircraft’s overall performance lacking, they tested a new engine, the 12-cylinder Rolls-Royce Merlin. This gave significantly-enhanced functionality, and led to the USAAF fitting two airframes with 1,430-hp Packard-constructed Merlin V-1650 engines. These aircraft had been re-designated XP-51B. Virtually overnight, the aircraft’s possible started to develop.

Given that the RAF had had good good results with the Mustang in a ground attack function, the USAAF bought 500 aircraft fitted with dive brakes and underwing weapons pylons. These were initially designated the A-36A Apache, but later retained the name Mustang. Nearly simultaneously, they ordered 310 P-51As with Allison engines. Some of these were delivered to the UK as Mustang Mk IIs, and some became F-6B reconnaissance aircraft for the USAAF.

The first Merlin-engine versions appeared in 1943 with the P-51B, of which 1,988 had been built in Inglewood, California, and the P-51C, of which 1,750 were constructed in Dallas, Texas. Both new versions had strengthened fuselages and four wing-mounted 12.7-mm machine guns. Many of these new Mustangs were delivered to the UK as Mustang Mk IIIs, and other individuals went to the USAAF as F-6Cs. The Merlin-powered Mustangs were exactly what the Allied bombers in Europe desperately necessary, and they became famous for their long range and potent high-altitude escort capability. The most substantial variant, the P-51D, featured a 360-degree-view bubble canopy, a modified rear fuselage, and six 12.77-mm machine guns. 7,956 were constructed, and after again, many went to the UK as Mustang Mk IVs and other people became USAAF F-6D reconnaissance aircraft. Next came the P-51K, which was usually related. A third of these became RAF Mustang IVs also, and more than a hundred became F-6Ks. Very late in the war, the P-51H appeared, although only 555 of 2000 have been completed prior to V-J Day caused the cancellation of the order. US production totaled 15,386, but at least 200 far more have been built by the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation of Australia with imported parts and designated Mustang Mk 20/21/22/23. None of these saw service ahead of the end of the war. Beneath the Lend-Lease system, 50 P-51s have been supplied to China, and 40 a lot more had been supplied to the Netherlands in the Pacific theater.

Following the war, the P-51 remained in US service with the Strategic Air Command until 1949, and with the Air National Guard and Reserves into the 1950s. It became one particular of the very first fighters to see combat in the Korean War. The RAF’s Fighter Command employed them until 1946. In addition, over 50 air forces around the world acquired and utilised the Mustang for a lot of a lot more years, some as recently as the early 1980s. When the US Air Force realigned their aircraft designations in the 1950s, the Mustang became the F-51.

In the final 40 years, surplus Mustangs have been modified and used extensively as civilian air racers, but the most recent trend is for private owners to restore them to nearly ideal, historically-accurate condition. As public appreciation for the Mustang has grown, the monetary worth of the handful of remaining examples has skyrocketed. War-surplus P-51s, once auctioned from storage for significantly less than (US) 00, are now usually valued at 3-quarters of a million dollars or far more. The restoration of existing airframes has turn out to be a little industry in the US, UK and Australia, and the total number of flyable examples, in spite of 1 or two accidents each and every year, is growing. A number of Mustangs have been or are presently getting restored as two-seat, dual-manage TF-51s, a trend which promises to guarantee that today’s operators are greater-trained than any earlier generation of Mustang pilots.

Nicknames: Fifty One ‘Stang Peter-Dash-Flash

Specifications (P-51D):
Engine: 1 1,695-hp Packard Merlin V-1650-7 piston V-12 engine
Weight: Empty 7,125 lbs., Max Takeoff 12,100 lbs.
Wing Span: 37ft. .5in.
Length: 32ft. 9.5in.
Height: 13ft. 8in.
Functionality:
Maximum Speed: 437 mph
Ceiling: 41,900 ft.
Variety: 1300 miles
Armament: Six 12.7-mm (.five inch) wing-mounted machine guns, plus up to two 1,000-lb bombs or six 127-mm (5 inch) rockets.

Information from www.warbirdalley.com

BMW GUGGENHEIM LAB
prototype parts made in china

Image by DCF_pics
MARS IN MUMBAI
Prototypes of modify developed for the BMW Guggenheim Lab

Informal settlements dominate considerably of the world’s emerging cityscape. The tense social and spatial situations they bring forth render most urban techniques ineffective. Neither best-down arranging, defined by a technocratic strategy of ever bigger infrastructure, nor bottom-up efforts, in the kind of increasingly sophisticated neighborhood level projects, seem capable to meet the challenges at the scale the developing metropolis demands. Can micro-scale interventions be created to accomplish citywide approaches?

This conceptual divide is further exacerbated in Mumbai, where slums that make up two-thirds of the population cut by means of the whole island city in a sharp spatial divide. Attempts to address the dire challenges from, water security to pollution and extreme congestion, are limited to either the formal or informal settlements. MARS Architects has made a vision for a United Mumbai, the beginning point for incorporating informal settlements as completely integrated parts of the formal city.

Over the coming weeks, stakeholder meetings will be held at the Guggenheim Lab Mumbai to discuss our ten proposed technologies, from wall systems to transport systems. Comply with us as an expanding technique of architectural interventions turns slums into sustainable settlements, which in turn grow to be the backbone of a United Mumbai.

Part 1: SPI MODEL
The foundation of this project is an in-depth study of Mumbai’s population density. Not merely mapping Mumbai’s infamous conditions in abstract terms but introducing a new methodology that greater represents the encounter on the ground. The new metric, known as the Stacked Population Index (SPI), measures the density of individuals per amount of accessible floor surface. All of a sudden the correct extents of Mumbai’s informal settlements can be observed: a yellow forest of towering densities covers the entire urban landscape. The harsh reality the city accommodates two thirds of its population on much less than a quarter of its residential surface, and yet urban plans for Mumbai mainly ignore their existence.

Comply with the project: MARS Architects Facebook web page

Occasion details: BMW GUGGENHEIM LAB

BMW GUGGENHEIM LAB
prototype parts made in china

Image by DCF_pics
MARS IN MUMBAI
Prototypes of change created for the BMW Guggenheim Lab

Informal settlements dominate a lot of the world’s emerging cityscape. The tense social and spatial circumstances they bring forth render most urban strategies ineffective. Neither top-down preparing, defined by a technocratic strategy of ever larger infrastructure, nor bottom-up efforts, in the form of increasingly sophisticated community level projects, look in a position to meet the challenges at the scale the establishing metropolis demands. Can micro-scale interventions be created to obtain citywide approaches?

This conceptual divide is additional exacerbated in Mumbai, where slums that make up two-thirds of the population cut through the complete island city in a sharp spatial divide. Attempts to address the dire challenges from, water security to pollution and serious congestion, are limited to either the formal or informal settlements. MARS Architects has developed a vision for a United Mumbai, the starting point for incorporating informal settlements as totally integrated components of the formal city.

Over the coming weeks, stakeholder meetings will be held at the Guggenheim Lab Mumbai to discuss our ten proposed technologies, from wall systems to transport systems. Stick to us as an expanding system of architectural interventions turns slums into sustainable settlements, which in turn turn out to be the backbone of a United Mumbai.

Element 1: SPI MODEL
The foundation of this project is an in-depth study of Mumbai’s population density. Not merely mapping Mumbai’s infamous situations in abstract terms but introducing a new methodology that much better represents the experience on the ground. The new metric, called the Stacked Population Index (SPI), measures the density of folks per quantity of accessible floor surface. All of a sudden the correct extents of Mumbai’s informal settlements can be observed: a yellow forest of towering densities covers the whole urban landscape. The harsh reality the city accommodates two thirds of its population on less than a quarter of its residential surface, and yet urban plans for Mumbai mostly ignore their existence.

Stick to the project: MARS Architects Facebook web page

Event particulars: BMW GUGGENHEIM LAB

(Post from rapid prototyping companies in china blog)

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