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Dedication to the Great Victory Day. Soviet Self Propelled Tank Destroer SU-100. 1944-45. Ко дню Великой Победы. Советская Самоходка СУ-one hundred.
The SU-one hundred was a Soviet casemate-style tank destroyer. It was utilised extensively for the duration of the final year of Planet War II and saw service for several years afterwards with the armies of Soviet allies around the globe.
It was created in 1944 as an improvement to the SU-85, built on the very same chassis as the T-34-85 tank. It was designed and constructed at the UZTM (Russian abbreviature УЗТМ for Уральский Завод Тяжелого Машиностроения – Ural Heavy Machinery Factory, also known as Uralmash) in Yekaterinburg. The SU-one hundred speedily proved itself to be among the very best self-propelled anti-tank guns of Globe War II, able to penetrate 125 mm (four.9 in) of vertical armor from a variety of 2,000 m (1.2 mi) and the sloped 85 mm (three.three in) front armor of the German Panther from 1,500 m (.93 mi). The development was performed under supervision of L. I. Gorlitskiy, chief designer of all medium Soviet self-propelled guns. The perform began in February 1944 and 1st prototype of SU-100, known as "Object 138", was built in March. Right after intensive testing with diverse models of 100 mm gun Soviet engineers authorized the D-10S gun for mass production. This gun was created in Constructors Bureau of Artillery Factory No. 9 below guidance of F. F. Petrov. Following the Second Planet War it was installed on T-54 and T-55 tanks and its derivatives have been in service forty years right after initial development. The hull of SU-100 had major improvements more than the SU-85 the thickness of the front armour was increased from 45 to 75 mm (1.8 to 3. in), and the commander’s workplace was made in a small sponson on the correct side of the hull combined with the commander’s cupola this greatly improved the commander’s effectiveness. For much better ventilation two ventilator units had been installed, rather of only a single as in the SU-85. Mass production started in September 1944.
The SU-one hundred saw comprehensive service in the course of the last year of the war. It was employed en masse in Hungary in March 1945, when Soviet forces defeated the German Operation Frühlingserwachen offensive at Lake Balaton. By July 1945, two,335 SU-100s had been built.
The automobile remained in service with the Red Army nicely after the war production continued in the Soviet Union till 1947 and into the 1950s in Czechoslovakia. It was withdrawn from Soviet service in 1957 but many autos have been transferred to reserve stocks. Some exist to this day in the Russian Army holding facilities.
A lot of Warsaw Pact nations also employed the SU-one hundred, as did Soviet allies such as Egypt, Angola and Cuba. A few SU-100 have been delivered to Yugoslavia soon after the war, under the designation M-44. The SU-100 saw service in the fighting that accompanied the 1956 Suez Crisis, in which the Egyptians utilized SU-100s against Israel’s M4 Sherman tanks. The car was also utilized in the 1967 Six-Day War and the 1973 Yom Kippur War. It was modified slightly to adapt it to the sandy conditions of the Middle East, therefore making the SU-100M variant. Exported SU-100s continued in service till the 1970s, and in some countries, even later. Yugoslavs utilized them in the course of the civil war nonetheless due to lack of spare components they had been quickly retired, but performed satisfactorily. The SU-100 remains in use by the Vietnam People’s Army and the Korean People’s Army Ground Force in spite of the age of the design and style.
SU-100s entered service with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) of China after 1 December 1950 when Soviet forces left Dalian. The armaments in Dalian were sold to China, such as 99 SU-100s, 18 IS-two heavy tanks, 16 T-54s and 224 T-34s, with which PLA formed its 1st Mechanised Division.
In well-liked culture 
The crew of a World War II SU-one hundred and their automobile are the heroes of the old Soviet film «На войне как на войне» Na vojne kak na vojne ("All’s fair in adore and war" (actually: "In wartime it is like wartime"), one of a number of Soviet films created about self-propelled artillery guys. Veterans of the German-Soviet War located this picture quite realistic. The movie includes a Soviet tankmen song, which is popular with each Russian armoured soldiers and civilians.
A SU-one hundred is employed by the protagonists in the film The Misfit Brigade, exactly where it is portrayed as a German tank, possibly simply because it resembles the Jagdpanzer 38 (t) tank destroyer and the Jagdpanther. Ironically, the film has a scene exactly where the Germans spot a single, supposedly captured by the Russians, and proclaim: "That’s 1 of ours! It sure is, and it really is a terrible paint job. You can nevertheless see the cross! … Ivan’s pinched my tank!" The film is also identified as Wheels of Terror, based on the book by Sven Hassel.
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: primary hall panorama (P-40 et al)
No matter whether identified as the Warhawk, Tomahawk, or Kittyhawk, the Curtiss P-40 proved to be a effective, versatile fighter for the duration of the 1st half of World War II. The shark-mouthed Tomahawks that Gen. Claire Chennault’s "Flying Tigers" flew in China against the Japanese remain amongst the most well-known airplanes of the war. P-40E pilot Lt. Boyd D. Wagner became the first American ace of Globe War II when he shot down six Japanese aircraft in the Philippines in mid-December 1941.
Curtiss-Wright built this airplane as Model 87-A3 and delivered it to Canada as a Kittyhawk I in 1941. It served until 1946 in No. 111 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force. U.S. Air Force personnel at Andrews Air Force Base restored it in 1975 to represent an aircraft of the 75th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, 14th Air Force.
Donated by the Exchange Club in Memory of Kellis Forbes.
Curtiss Aircraft Company
Nation of Origin:
United States of America
All round: 330 x 970cm, 2686kg, 1140cm (10ft 9 15/16in. x 31ft 9 7/8in., 5921.6lb., 37ft four 13/16in.)
Single engine, single seat, fighter aircraft.
Whether it was the Tomahawk, Warhawk, or Kittyhawk, the Curtiss P-40 was a effective and versatile fighter aircraft for the duration of the 1st half of World War II. The shark-mouthed Tomahawks that Common Claire Chennault led against the Japanese stay amongst the most well-known airplanes of the war. In the Phillipines, Lt. Boyd D. Wagner became the 1st American ace of Globe War II whilst flying a P-40E when he shot down six Japanese aircraft for the duration of mid-December 1941. P-40s had been first-line Army Air Corps fighters at the begin of the war but they soon gave way to more sophisticated designs such as the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and the Lockheed P-38 Lightning (see NASM collection for both aircraft). The P-40 is not ranked among the very best general fighters of the war but it was a rugged, successful design accessible in big numbers early in the war when America and her allies urgently required them. The P-40 remained in production from 1939 to the finish of 1944 and a total of 13, 737 have been built.
Style engineer Dr. Donovan R. Berlin layed the foundation for the P-40 in 1935 when he developed the agile, but lightly-armed, P-36 fighter equipped with a radial, air-cooled engine. The Curtiss-Wright Corporation won a production contract for 210 P-36 airplanes in 1937-the biggest Army airplane contract awarded given that Globe War I. Worldwide, fighter aircraft styles matured swiftly for the duration of the late 1930s and it was soon clear that the P-36 was no match for newer European styles. High altitude functionality in particular became a priceless commodity. Berlin attempted to increase the P-36 by redesigning it in to accommodate a turbo-supercharged Allison V-1710-11 inline, liquid-cooled engine. The new aircraft was designated the XP-37 but proved unpopular with pilots. The turbo-supercharger was not reliable and Berlin had placed the cockpit too far back on the fuselage, restricting the view to the front of the fighter. Nonetheless, when the engine was not giving trouble, the more-streamlined XP-37 was considerably more rapidly than the P-36.
Curtiss tried once again in 1938. Berlin had modified yet another P-36 with a new Allison V-1710-19 engine. It was designated the XP-40 and initial flew on October 14, 1938. The XP-40 looked promising and Curtiss presented it to Army Air Corps leaders who evaluated the airplane at Wright Field, Ohio, in 1939, along with numerous other fighter proposals. The P-40 won the competitors, after some modifications, and Curtiss received an order for 540. At this time, the armament package consisted of two .50 caliber machine guns in the fuselage and four .30 caliber machine guns in the wings.
Right after production started in March 1940, France ordered 140 P-40s but the British took delivery of these airplanes when Paris surrendered. The British named the aircraft Tomahawks but identified they performed poorly in high-altitude combat over northern Europe and relegated them to low-altitude operations in North Africa. The Russians purchased a lot more than two,000 P-40s but particulars of their operational history remain obscure.
When the United States declared war, P-40s equipped a lot of of the Army Air Corps’s front line fighter units. The plucky fighter ultimately saw combat in almost every theater of operations being the most effective in the China-Burma-India (CBI) Theater. Of all the CBI groups that gained the most notoriety of the complete war, and remains to this day synonymous with the P-40, is the American Volunteer Group (AVG) or the Flying Tigers. The unit was organized following the Chinese gave former U. S. Army Air Corps Captain Claire Lee Chennault virtually 9 million dollars in 1940 to purchase aircraft and recruit pilots to fly against the Japanese. Chennault’s most essential assistance inside the Chinese government came from Madam Chiang Kai-shek, a Lt. Colonel in the Chinese Air Force and for a time, the service’s general commander.
The funds from China diverted an order placed by the British Royal Air Force for 100 Curtiss-Wright P-40B Tomahawks but buying airplanes was only one important step in making a fighting air unit. Educated pilots had been required, and speedily, as tensions across the Pacific escalated. On April 15, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt quietly signed an Executive Order permitting Chennault to recruit straight from the ranks of American military reserve pilots. Within a couple of months, 350 flyers joined from pursuit (fighter), bomber, and patrol squadrons. In all, about half the pilots in the Flying Tigers came from the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps whilst the Army Air Corps supplied a single-third. Factory test pilots at Bell, Consolidated, and other organizations, and industrial airline pilots, filled the remaining slots.
The Flying Tigers flew their very first mission on December 20. The unit’s name was derived from the ferocious fangs and teeth painted on the nose of AVG P-40s at either side of the distinctive, big radiator air intake. The concept is mentioned to originate from photographs in a magazine that showed Royal Air Force Tomahawks of No. 112 Squadron, operating in the western desert of North Africa, adorned with fangs and teeth painted about their air intakes. The Flying Tigers have been the first genuine opposition the Japanese military encountered. In less than 7 months of action, AVG pilots destroyed about 115 Japanese aircraft and lost only 11 planes in air-to-air combat. The AVG disbanded on July four, 1942, and its assets, such as a couple of pilots, became a portion of the U. S. Army Air Forces (AAF) 23rd Fighter Group in the newly activated 14th Air Force. Chennault, now a Brigadier Common, assumed command of the 14th AF and by war’s finish, the 23rd was a single of the highest-scoring Army fighter groups.
As wartime knowledge in the P-40 mounted, Curtiss created many modifications. Engineers added armor plate, greater self-sealing fuel tanks, and far more powerful engines. They modified the cockpit to increase visibility and changed the armament package to six, wing-mounted, .50 caliber machine guns. The P-40E Kittyhawk was the first model with this gun package and it entered service in time to serve in the AVG. The last model produced in quantity was the P-40N, the lightest P-40 built in quantity, and significantly faster than preceding models. Curtiss constructed a single P-40Q. It was the fastest P-40 to fly (679 kph/422 mph) but it could not match the functionality of the P-47 Thunderbolt and the P-51 Mustang so Curtiss ended development of the P-40 series with this model. In addition to the AAF, numerous Allied nations purchased and flew P-40s including England, France, China, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, and Turkey.
The Smithsonian P-40E did not serve in the U. S. military. Curtiss-Wright constructed it in Buffalo, New York, as Model 87-A3 and delivered it to Canada as a Kittyhawk IA on March 11, 1941. It served in No. 111 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). When the Japanese navy moved to attack Midway, they sent a diversionary battle group to menace the Aleutian Islands. Canada moved No. 111 Squadron to Alaska to help defend the area. Following the Japanese threat diminished, the unit returned to Canada and ultimately transferred to England with out its P-40s. The RCAF declared the NASM Kittyhawk IA surplus on July 27, 1946, and the aircraft eventually returned to the United States. It had several owners before ending up with the Explorer Scouts youth group in Meridian, Mississippi. For the duration of the early 1960s, the Smithsonian began looking for a P-40 with a documented history of service in the AVG but discovered none. In 1964, the Exchange Club in Meridian donated the Kittyhawk IA to the National Aeronautical Collection, in memory of Mr. Kellis Forbes, a regional man devoted to Boys Club activities. A U. S. Air Force Reserve crew airlifted the fighter to Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland, on March 13, 1964. Andrews personnel restored the airplane in 1975 and painted it to represent an aircraft of the 75th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, 14th Air Force.
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Quoting from Wikipedia | Curtiss P-40 Warhawk:
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk was an American single-engine, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground attack aircraft that initial flew in 1938. It was utilised by the air forces of 28 nations, which includes these of most Allied powers throughout Planet War II, and remained in front line service till the end of the war. It was the third most-produced American fighter, after the P-51 and P-47 by November 1944, when production of the P-40 ceased, 13,738 had been built, all at Curtiss-Wright Corporation‘s major production facility at Buffalo, New York.
The P-40 design and style was a modification of the preceding Curtiss P-36 this lowered improvement time and enabled a rapid entry into production and operational service.
Warhawk was the name the United States Army Air Corps adopted for all models, producing it the official name in the United States for all P-40s. The British Commonwealth and Soviet air forces utilized the name Tomahawk for models equivalent to the P-40B and P-40C, and the name Kittyhawk for models equivalent to the P-40D and all later variants.
The P-40’s lack of a two-stage supercharger created it inferior to Luftwaffe fighters such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109 or the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 in higher-altitude combat and it was hardly ever employed in operations in Northwest Europe. In between 1941 and 1944, even so, the P-40 played a critical function with Allied air forces in 3 main theaters: North Africa, the Southwest Pacific and China. It also had a considerable part in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, Alaska and Italy. The P-40’s overall performance at high altitudes was not as essential in those theaters, where it served as an air superiority fighter, bomber escort and fighter bomber.
P-40s initial saw combat with the British Commonwealth squadrons of the Desert Air Force (DAF) in the Middle East and North African campaigns, throughout June 1941. The Royal Air Force‘s No. 112 Squadron was among the very first to operate Tomahawks, in North Africa, and the unit was the 1st to feature the "shark mouth" logo, copying similar markings on some Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Bf 110 twin-engine fighters. [N 1]
Even though it gained a post-war reputation as a mediocre style, appropriate only for close air support, far more current analysis like scrutiny of the records of person Allied squadrons indicates that the P-40 performed surprisingly effectively as an air superiority fighter, at occasions suffering extreme losses, but also taking a very heavy toll on enemy aircraft. The P-40 provided the added advantage of low cost, which kept it in production as a ground-attack fighter extended right after it was obsolete in the air superiority function.
As of 2008, 19 P-40s have been airworthy.
BMW GUGGENHEIM LAB
Image by DCF_pics
MARS IN MUMBAI
Prototypes of change developed for the BMW Guggenheim Lab
Informal settlements dominate a lot of the world’s emerging cityscape. The tense social and spatial situations they bring forth render most urban approaches ineffective. Neither top-down arranging, defined by a technocratic method of ever bigger infrastructure, nor bottom-up efforts, in the form of increasingly sophisticated neighborhood level projects, look capable to meet the challenges at the scale the establishing metropolis demands. Can micro-scale interventions be developed to accomplish citywide methods?
This conceptual divide is further exacerbated in Mumbai, exactly where slums that make up two-thirds of the population reduce by way of the whole island city in a sharp spatial divide. Attempts to address the dire challenges from, water security to pollution and extreme congestion, are restricted to either the formal or informal settlements. MARS Architects has created a vision for a United Mumbai, the starting point for incorporating informal settlements as completely integrated parts of the formal city.
More than the coming weeks, stakeholder meetings will be held at the Guggenheim Lab Mumbai to talk about our ten proposed technologies, from wall systems to transport systems. Stick to us as an expanding method of architectural interventions turns slums into sustainable settlements, which in turn turn out to be the backbone of a United Mumbai.
Component 1: SPI MODEL
The foundation of this project is an in-depth study of Mumbai’s population density. Not merely mapping Mumbai’s infamous circumstances in abstract terms but introducing a new methodology that greater represents the expertise on the ground. The new metric, called the Stacked Population Index (SPI), measures the density of individuals per quantity of offered floor surface. All of a sudden the true extents of Mumbai’s informal settlements can be observed: a yellow forest of towering densities covers the complete urban landscape. The harsh reality the city accommodates two thirds of its population on significantly less than a quarter of its residential surface, and but urban plans for Mumbai mostly ignore their existence.
Comply with the project: MARS Architects Facebook page
Event information: BMW GUGGENHEIM LAB
(Post from rapid prototyping companies in china blog)